Human resource management is the art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining and developing people in their jobs in the light of their personal, professional, and technical knowledge, skills, potentials, needs and values and in synchronization with the achievement of individual, organization and society’s goal. The process implies the five functions of management which are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.Human resources management deals only with people so they can manage the other resources within their domain of responsibility efficiently and effectively. Human resource management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Scope of Human Resources ManagementHuman Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced.
HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate value. Thus, the scope of Human Resources Management becomes more extensive as management endeavors to meet the needs and goals of its people in the organization.The following are the 5 major functions of Human Resource Management: (1) Job Organization and Information – it is related to job analysis, every job is defined in terms of duties and responsibilities and of the qualifications of the job holder. This function also includes job design and evaluation. (2) Acquisition or Procurement – begins with the planning of human resources in relation to available jobs or job need.
It consists of knowing the demand and supply of the resource and integrating it into the strategy o acquiring more or retrenching the force in light of the organization needs and goals.This phase includes recruitment, screening, selection, and placement of employees. The significance of effective acquisition is based on the recognition and realization of the cumbersome cost of turnover and replacement of personnel – retention forecasting. (3) Maintenance – comprises motivation, compensation, administration, rewards and sanctions, performance evaluation, benefits, services, maintenance of discipline and working conditions that are necessary for worker retention. (4) Development – includes training and education that aims to upgrade knowledge and skills and improve attitudes of all levels in the organization.It also includes career planning and counseling which assists the individual path his growth and development in light of his and organization’s needs and values and gives guidance when beset with problems. (5) Research – supplies facts, theories and principles on human resources management that are needed to improve the policies and practices of the above mentioned functions. General Management General Management, Personnel Management and Human Resources Management: A Differentiation M A N Human Resources Management Other Resources: * Money * Machines * Materials Market * Methods * Minutes (Time) Personnel Mngt As depicted in the illustration above, General Management encompasses all resources including Human Resource, thus it is a big umbrella in scope.
Human resource management, just like personnel management, involves only MAN. Personnel Management is under the umbrella of Human Resources Management. Personnel Management vs. Human Resources Management * People Involved – Personnel Management deals with the rank and file workers (a. k. a labour management) as the middle and top managers are the domain of the CEO.
In contrast, all those who help in the achievement of the organization goals from top to bottom level of the organization are covered in the embracing umbrella of Human Resources Management. * Hours of Work – While personnel management places relatively greater emphasis on the full time workers (rendering 40 hours of work in a week according to labor code), two other type of workers, the part timers and flex timers, fall under human resources management. * Place of Work – The full time rank and file workers are expected to report for work in their respective formal work settings in personnel management.While human resources management affords more flexibility with regard to time and place of work which the staff and workers find less rigid, more emotionally satisfying and more productive. * Types of Service/Function – Personnel management has been offering relatively limited services, hence functions are fewer and repetitive associated with mechanical and routine work. On the other hand, Human Resources Management is tasked with multifarious services.
Anything outside the technical, financial and administrative phases is the domain of human resources management resulting in very complex and complicated web of services. Department Head/Officer in Charge – The Personnel Department’s activities being very simple and mechanistic could be done by any paymaster or personnel records keeper. In contrast, the Human Resources Department tasked with the traditional and new services is a separate department headed by a Human Resources Manager who is a specialist in behavioral sciences. * Staff Qualification – The complexity of human resources management services calls for more professional qualifications like a college degree backed up by a sound knowledge of and apt skills in human behavior.
On the other hand, not much is required for the Personnel Management as task are mainly clerical in nature. * Level of Reporting – The level at which personnel management staff report is comparatively lower. They are under the supervision of any line manager: either administrative, finance, production. On the other hand, human resources management staff report directly to general management. * Goals – Conceptually, the goals are likely to be the same but in organizational practices it still shows some distinction. The achievement of organizational goals is the prime end of personnel management.In contrast, human resources management purports to accomplish not only organization goals but also individual goals. The congruence of both goals is directly proportional to the harmony between management and labor.
* Technology – The organization-oriented personnel management tends to be structural and mechanistic. Rigidity and reactive and it is control-oriented utilizing an “auditorial” approach in dealing with people. While human resources management takes on a socio-technical orientation. It is more proactive providing opportunities and mechanisms even before it makes things happen.
Get instant help by clicking this link for this or any other academic paper. It paves a way for individual and group creativity and productivity which in turn results in better organization productivity. * Strategies – The concept of personnel management may be healthy and wholesome but commonly it tends to be personal and subjective. Approach used in personnel management is segmented and compartmentalized reacting to ne situation at a time without regard to relationships.
Human resources management is objective and scientific, based on actual data, qualifications and performance – thus the evolution of human resource accounting. Philosophy – Traditionalism is the byword of personnel management with priorities on the welfare of the proprietors and managers. In contrast, human resources management is people-based and is characterized by its humane treatment of and respect for the individual’s well being.