The Role of Human Resources Custom Essay

Human resource management is the art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining and developing people in their jobs in the light of their personal, professional, and technical knowledge, skills, potentials, needs and values and in synchronization with the achievement of individual, organization and society’s goal. The process implies the five functions of management which are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.Human resources management deals only with people so they can manage the other resources within their domain of responsibility efficiently and effectively. Human resource management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Scope of Human Resources ManagementHuman Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced.

HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate value. Thus, the scope of Human Resources Management becomes more extensive as management endeavors to meet the needs and goals of its people in the organization.The following are the 5 major functions of Human Resource Management: (1) Job Organization and Information – it is related to job analysis, every job is defined in terms of duties and responsibilities and of the qualifications of the job holder. This function also includes job design and evaluation. (2) Acquisition or Procurement – begins with the planning of human resources in relation to available jobs or job need.

It consists of knowing the demand and supply of the resource and integrating it into the strategy o acquiring more or retrenching the force in light of the organization needs and goals.This phase includes recruitment, screening, selection, and placement of employees. The significance of effective acquisition is based on the recognition and realization of the cumbersome cost of turnover and replacement of personnel – retention forecasting. (3) Maintenance – comprises motivation, compensation, administration, rewards and sanctions, performance evaluation, benefits, services, maintenance of discipline and working conditions that are necessary for worker retention. (4) Development – includes training and education that aims to upgrade knowledge and skills and improve attitudes of all levels in the organization.It also includes career planning and counseling which assists the individual path his growth and development in light of his and organization’s needs and values and gives guidance when beset with problems. (5) Research – supplies facts, theories and principles on human resources management that are needed to improve the policies and practices of the above mentioned functions. General Management General Management, Personnel Management and Human Resources Management: A Differentiation M A N Human Resources Management Other Resources: * Money * Machines * Materials Market * Methods * Minutes (Time) Personnel Mngt As depicted in the illustration above, General Management encompasses all resources including Human Resource, thus it is a big umbrella in scope.

Human resource management, just like personnel management, involves only MAN. Personnel Management is under the umbrella of Human Resources Management. Personnel Management vs. Human Resources Management * People Involved – Personnel Management deals with the rank and file workers (a. k. a labour management) as the middle and top managers are the domain of the CEO.

In contrast, all those who help in the achievement of the organization goals from top to bottom level of the organization are covered in the embracing umbrella of Human Resources Management. * Hours of Work – While personnel management places relatively greater emphasis on the full time workers (rendering 40 hours of work in a week according to labor code), two other type of workers, the part timers and flex timers, fall under human resources management. * Place of Work – The full time rank and file workers are expected to report for work in their respective formal work settings in personnel management.While human resources management affords more flexibility with regard to time and place of work which the staff and workers find less rigid, more emotionally satisfying and more productive. * Types of Service/Function – Personnel management has been offering relatively limited services, hence functions are fewer and repetitive associated with mechanical and routine work. On the other hand, Human Resources Management is tasked with multifarious services.

Anything outside the technical, financial and administrative phases is the domain of human resources management resulting in very complex and complicated web of services. Department Head/Officer in Charge – The Personnel Department’s activities being very simple and mechanistic could be done by any paymaster or personnel records keeper. In contrast, the Human Resources Department tasked with the traditional and new services is a separate department headed by a Human Resources Manager who is a specialist in behavioral sciences. * Staff Qualification – The complexity of human resources management services calls for more professional qualifications like a college degree backed up by a sound knowledge of and apt skills in human behavior.

On the other hand, not much is required for the Personnel Management as task are mainly clerical in nature. * Level of Reporting – The level at which personnel management staff report is comparatively lower. They are under the supervision of any line manager: either administrative, finance, production. On the other hand, human resources management staff report directly to general management. * Goals – Conceptually, the goals are likely to be the same but in organizational practices it still shows some distinction. The achievement of organizational goals is the prime end of personnel management.In contrast, human resources management purports to accomplish not only organization goals but also individual goals. The congruence of both goals is directly proportional to the harmony between management and labor.

* Technology – The organization-oriented personnel management tends to be structural and mechanistic. Rigidity and reactive and it is control-oriented utilizing an “auditorial” approach in dealing with people. While human resources management takes on a socio-technical orientation. It is more proactive providing opportunities and mechanisms even before it makes things happen.

Get instant help by clicking this link for this or any other academic paper. It paves a way for individual and group creativity and productivity which in turn results in better organization productivity. * Strategies – The concept of personnel management may be healthy and wholesome but commonly it tends to be personal and subjective. Approach used in personnel management is segmented and compartmentalized reacting to ne situation at a time without regard to relationships.

Human resources management is objective and scientific, based on actual data, qualifications and performance – thus the evolution of human resource accounting. Philosophy – Traditionalism is the byword of personnel management with priorities on the welfare of the proprietors and managers. In contrast, human resources management is people-based and is characterized by its humane treatment of and respect for the individual’s well being.

The International Business Environment Custom Essay

Nowadays managers are dealing with changing workplaces, security threats, ethical issues, global economic and political uncertainties and technological advancement. Every Organization whether its multinational, private business or Govt. Offices depend on its people. Telecom industry is growing in Pakistan with new companies is getting license the competition is tough; as a result it is the consumer who is getting benefits and enjoy low call rates.The customer may not fully understand all of the project’s requirements at the beginning of the project. The customer may use imprecise language such as “I guess; I want” or “Maybe we should consider” or may not fully articulate what is required. Requirements may be vague, incomplete and may not be specific enough to be measurable. This ambiguity often leads to products or services delivered to the customer that: May be technically sound but fall short by not improving the business process.

Does not meet customer’s expectations.LACK OF CLARITY IN SCOPE OF THE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS: Another challenge being faced by the management is the lack of understanding the scope of business functions. That is; in the translation of the customer’s needs into the delivered product or service, vague requirements may not be properly understood. The subsequent design documents may, therefore, be poorly defined and documented.Management must recognize their role as one of defining the business solution boundaries– i.e.
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 ANTICIPATING GLOBAL TALENT SHORTAGE: The most critical problem is hiring, retaining, training and motivating professional talent in a troublesome scenario where the already critical shortage of human talent in some professional areas and in diverse managerial disciplines due to the beginning of the retirement with no enough replacements of the baby boomers’ workforce; economical growth and resurgence of energy market firms due to record crude oil prices has motivated a fierce competence to hire, train and retain the already scarce talent available in the job market. Being so, human talent is being more critical to ensure the competitiveness of a company for the long term.Such perception is the expression of a growing trend of cannibalization in hiring and recruiting scarce professional resource that finally is engaged to work with the bigger companies.

This trend is particularly critical in the Oil & Energy and Engineering industries where I have worked for years and where is possible observe a continuous turnover of engineers from one company to the other on looking for better salary perspectives and superior career development plans.EMPLOYER BRAND MANAGEMENT: Today’s global organizations should stand out in developing Employer Brand Management practices to generate multicultural workplaces where an employee can feel pride and satisfaction for belonging to an organization where he/she is considered, respected and recognized. The cultural dimensions (Credibility, Respect, Fairness, Pride and solidarity) should be adapted to pursuit this purpose.

When an employee as usually happens in most of today’s companies is considered as a mere commodity that may be easily replaced, relocated, hired and finally fired out, is easy to expect that in such workplaces an torture feeling of demoralization, progressive disengagement and lost of motivation finally will have a profound and unfavorable impact over employee’s productivity, increasing the rate of employee’s attrition and affecting the whole company’s productivity for the long term. This is the reason that justifies the progressive adoption of Employer Branding practices.3.

5 MANAGING MULTICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS: In global organizations that are occupied in developing transformational projects with a worldwide scope dealing with cultural differences in organizations requires from a strong, empowered and influential leadership with the willingness of applying the proper corporate governance practices to regulate those differences around an inspiring business vision that being strongly encouraged by senior Management and enabled by collaborative technologies may be active in reducing the inefficiencies of having multidisciplinary teams geographically dispersed with different cultures working in markets, products and projects that could be intrinsic and inherent to the particular country´s culture, history and traditions.MANAGING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT: International managers face intense and constant challenges that require training and understanding of the foreign environment. Managing a business in a foreign country requires managers to deal with a large variety of cultural and environmental differences.

As a result, international managers must continually monitor the political, legal, socio cultural, economic, and technological environments. (International Environment)POLITICAL /LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: The political environment can promote or hinder economic developments and direct investments. This environment is ever-changing. The political and economic philosophies of a nation’s leader may change overnight. The stability of a nation’s government, which frequently rests on the support of the people, can be very volatile. Various citizen groups with vested interests can undermine investment operations and opportunities. And local governments may view foreign firms suspiciously.MANAGING DIVERSE TEAMS: Many business teams are made up of members from a variety of different cultures and backgrounds.

Understanding and managing the differences can build tolerance. Many business teams are made up of members from a variety of different cultures and backgrounds. Understanding and managing the differences can build tolerance.

This brings many advantages; businesses can choose the right people for the team from a range of sources and people from ethnically diverse backgrounds bring to the team their own unique experiences.Understand the Differences Get to know and understand the various cultures on the team. This can be a great activity early on in the team’s formation and gives all the team members an opportunity to know more about each other. Zero Tolerance to Discrimination Discrimination does still exist today and it’s very important for managers to address any such behaviour when it immediately arises. If you are subjected to discrimination, do not tolerate it and raise it with your manager. Establish a zero tolerance attitude on the team for discrimination.

 (tips-for-managing-culturally-diverse-teams)3.9 UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL NETWORKS: Management need to understand the social networks and social relationships of work groups. This is another challenge or issue being faced by the management in today’s world. Because a social relationship can help determine an individual to help or hinder his effectiveness. Reviews and surveys had shown that the teams with high levels of interpersonal and interconnectedness actually attained their goals better and were more committed to staying together.ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: It is one of the most critical aspects of effective management. but the nature of Change is may be increasingly complex, and it is more often extensive. Effective management requires attention to detail, and planning comes in at two places: ï First, is to think through all aspects of the implications of the change; ï the second, is to set out all the actions that need to take place in order to ensure that need to ï take place in order to ensure that the change is implemented.

Get instant help by clicking this link for this or any other academic paper.  (how-to-manage-organizational-change)BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION: Communication skills are critical for managers. Unfortunately, there are a number of barriers that can negatively impact communication effectiveness. Understanding these barriers and taking steps to minimize or overcome them can help to ensure that managers are effective in their communications with employees and others. The key barriers are distractions, time limitations, biases and skills.

Time Managers must juggle not only their own responsibilities and tasks, but must also be attentive to the needs of the people they manage and sometimes they manage a lot of people. With only so many hours in a day and days in a week managers can be challenged to find the time to communicate effectively not only with employees, but with colleagues, bosses and customers. While we can’t find more time, we can find ways to use the time we have more effectively.Scheduling time in our day to attend to specific tasks based on how alert we are in the morning or afternoon, grouping like tasks together and using a planning tool to help keep tasks organized can be ways to stay on top of multiple responsibilities. Market Segmentation: Cellular service market is a diverse set of people. Ufone as well as other cellular companies segment their market on four bases: economy, age, gender & occupation.

TARGET MARKETS: Cellular phones are the technology of new era, the 21st century. These cellular phones are the main focus of our youngsters. All the cellular companies are targeting The Youth one way or other. Ufone is no longer a follower in this race. Its main focus is “THE YOUTH ” of Pakistan which is its Target Market.

Reaction of Various metal oxides when Mixed with Hydrogen peroxide

The volume of oxygen evolved will be observed and recorded to measure the reaction rate and the reaction rates of the different metal oxides will be compared.Scientific Background: Catalysis is the process by which the activation energy is lowered to allow the reaction to occur at less extreme conditions, during the process the catalyst does not under go any overall change. The catalyst reduces the activation energy by using a chemical route with activation energy less then the route, which would otherwise be taken in the absence of the catalyst. During catalysis the reacting substance usually undergoes a change or changes in oxidation state, therefore the catalyst must also be able to change its oxidation state. The s & p block metals possess or exhibit only one oxidation state. The reason being that their oxidation state depends on the removal of electrons from their outermost shell.The further removal of electrons will result in the penetration of stable inner shells that are filled with electrons. This would require an excessive amount of energy.

As a result of this, the catalysts are not able to enter their different oxidation states and this therefore does not allow them to successfully act like a catalyst. Transition metals can form ions, which have D orbitals, which are partially filled with electrons. D orbitals are the outer most shells and they can hold up to 10 electrons and they also have similar energy levels, which allows them to overlap within each other. It is this process which allows the transition metals to have various oxidation states. The orbital possess the same energy, which enables transition metal ions to enter their different oxidation states.
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This therefore allows them to act as catalysts. As there are more spaces for electrons to be lost and gained the reaction can take place faster and better.The general equation for the experiment is:CATALYST2H2O2 O2+2H20From the equation it can be seen that Oxygen is produced in the reaction and this is what is being collected and measured in the gas syringe.Prediction: The transition metal oxides MnO2 (Manganese oxide), ZnO (Zinc Oxide) and CuO (Copper Oxide) will be compared with SiO2 (Silicon Oxide), A12O3 (Aluminium Oxide) and PbO (Lead Oxide) which are transitional metal oxides to see their action on hydrogen peroxide and therefore see if only the transition metal oxide allow catalysis or that all metal oxides allow catalysis for this reaction.Apparatus:In the experiment, 20cm3 of water and 20cm3 of hydrogen peroxide will be used.The above apparatus is easy to use and will give quick results; a stop clock will be used to see how much gas is collected in a given time.

The conical flask is used to keep the solution in and the rubber bung is placed on top firmly to prevent any loss of gas, which would obviously affect results.The following oxides will be chosen for the experiment: SiO2, A12O3, PbO, MnO2, ZnO and CuO. 1 gram of each oxide shall be usedSiO2, A12O3 and PbO are not transition metal oxide, whereas MnO2, ZnO and CuO are transition metal oxide. They will be used to compare the catalytic action if any of transition and non-transition metal oxide on hydrogen peroxide.1 gram of each oxide allows a sensible amount of oxide to be used without causing a dangerously vigorous reaction to occur.

Variables:The following variables will be controlled throughout the experiment:Temperature can affect the reaction rate of H2O2 decomposition. Two molecules can only react if they have enough energy, by heating a mixture the energy levels will be raised of the molecules involved in the reaction. Therefore, by increasing the temperature the molecules will move faster and collide with each other more quickly. This will increase the rate of reaction and so the temperature will be kept constant throughout the experiment by carrying it out under room temperature.Concentration and volumes of the hydrogen peroxide must be kept constant because if there are more molecules of a particular substance in a certain volume then there is more of a chance of the molecules colliding with each other. The frequency of collisions is increased which increases the rate of reaction. Thus the hydrogen peroxide must be kept constant for each run of the experiment with a metal oxide. The amount of oxide must also be kept constant for the same reasons.

Particulate size could affect the rate of reaction as if the particle sizes are larger then the rate of reaction will be slower because there is a smaller surface area for the substance to react on. By crushing the catalysts to have the same particle sizes this can be controlled.The key variable is the one, which will be the one, which is varied in the experiment. In this case it will be the metal oxide used in the experiment, which will be varied.Preliminary Experiment:A preliminary experiment was carried out using the same apparatus and the catalysts used were manganese oxide, iron oxide and lead (iv) oxide. The manganese oxide worked well as a catalyst but no results could be collected as the reaction went to quickly. This is most probably due to the amount of oxide being too much. No results were collected for iron oxide, and lead (iv) oxide because they did not produce any gas and therefore did not work as catalysts.

The apparatus seemed appropriate however, a clamp stand was not used to hold the syringe up and so the apparatus can be modified so that the gas syringe is supported by the clamp stand. The other modifications, which need to be made, are the catalysts being used and amount of oxide. The amount of oxide used in the preliminary experiment was 2 grams and so this can be reduced to 1 gram to decrease the rate of the reaction so that a good set of results can be collected.Method:1 – Measure out using a measuring cylinder 20cm3 water and 20cm3 hydrogen peroxide and add to a conical flask.2- Using the balance to weigh out accurately 1 gram of MnO2.3- Using the filter paper used to weigh the oxide add the oxide to the hydrogen peroxide, and immediately stopper the flask with the connecting tube attached to the bung.4- Immediately start the stop clock and see how much gas is collected the gas evolved will push the syringe itself; therefore do not touch the syringe.

Readings should be taken every 10 seconds.5- Record how much gas if any is collected until the syringe stops moving itself.6- Repeat the experiment with MnO2 so three sets of results can be collected to find an average.7- Do 1-6 with the remaining oxides and tabulate the results.Safety: Hydrogen peroxide is a corrosive liquid and should therefore be used sensibly and eye and skin contact should be prevented. Manganese IV Oxide is harmful and again skin contact should be avoided. An overall should be worn when handling hydrogen peroxide. Goggles should be worn when adding the oxide to the peroxide, although they are not needed throughout the rest of the experiment.

Reliability of Results:* When collecting the gas, the attachment of the rubber bung should be very quick to minimise any loss of gas.* The hydrogen peroxide should be measured out accurately. The oxides should also be weighed accurately using an accurate balance.* The oxides should all be in solid powdered form and not in any other form, as this will effect how the catalysts react with the hydrogen peroxide. If the surface area is different on the catalysts then they will react more/less violently.* The apparatus should be cleaned after each run with water to remove any impurities that may affect the next experiment.* The timing of each experiment should be accurate and a digital stop clock should be used.

Rechargeable Batteries vs. Alkaline Batteries Custom Essay

Batteries are a compact portable energy source, we use batteries in our life; it has played a very important role within our modern society such as to operate portables appliances. We use torches as a backup lighting system; we use batteries on our mobile phones, as well as batteries in our cars. Many of us, do not even have the realisation that it is a perfect example of application of chemistry in daily life.The battery industry has become a very profitable market.

The market is saturated and we see more and more brands, each and every one of them claiming that they yield better value and effectiveness. Rechargeable batteries, allow the recharging of the batteries that allows the battery to be used for more than once. They are now available in the market, but they do not come at a cheap price, you will need to invest on a charger, a device you need to acquire to charge up the rechargeable battery.The topic was chosen as this matter has left many of us dazzled, the need of battery is unquestioned but they come at relatively expensive price that vary across different brands.

So which one do we choose among the brands within the market? Is it justified to spend money on investing on a charger so we can use rechargeable batteries? Or is it better to keep using the traditional batteries? What kind of battery usage do we need until it is economical to get rechargeable batteries? This essay will help answer these questions.Theoretical Background:1.1 History of Battery:On 1660 Otto Von Guericke built the first static generator, which is a glass ball turned by hand which rubbed against cloth which create sparks of electricity. After Otto’s discovery, more scientists are involved and fascinated by electricity. But it is not until 20th of March 1800, came one of the greatest breakthroughs in the electricity experiments. A professional disagreement, over the results of an experiment, between Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta two leading scientists, led Volta to prove that when certain metals and chemicals come into contact with each other they can produce an electrical current.

He placed together several pairs of silver and zinc discs separated by paper soaked in salt water and an electrical current was produced, Volta had produced the first battery. These are called Voltaic battery, or usually referred in Chemistry as Galvanic Cells. Refer to Figure 3 (P.5) for illustration.1.2 What is a battery?So what exactly are batteries? This seems like an easy question, even someone as young as 5 year old will know it, as they are playing their game-boy or remote control they use batteries. Unfortunately there are more to it than just an apparatus that provide electricity, it is a complex matter that has been researched by scientists since ages ago.1 Batteries come in different varieties and sizes.

Some are small enough to fit in our watches, yet many are strong enough to power cars, and planes. Figure one shows the common household batteries we use on everyday life.”Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, energy can only be changed from one form into another.”2Law of Conservation Energy.In theory energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form into another.

There are different forms of energy; electrical, chemical, kinetic, sound, heat, and potential energy. A battery is anything that has potential energy. Potential in a sense that it has possibility and capability of having the energy but it is not yet in existence. When you push a boulder on the top of the hill, the amount of energy you put into the boulder as you go up, is stored on potential energy, which then released when the boulder is rolling down the hill. This is a method to conserve energy to be used later. On the case of a household battery, chemical energy is stored and converted into electrical energy. In the case of electrochemical batteries this is done through connecting one or more galvanic cells.1.

3 Background Theory of a Battery:Fig 2. Conceptual Diagram of a “Galvanic Cell”Figure 2. Shows concept of a very simple battery; it is a very important basic knowledge to understand the chemistry of modern batteries. In any galvanic cell, one of reactant has to lose electrons; the lost electrons then gain by the other reactant. In the anode, the reactant that usually is a metal, undergoes oxidation, the electrons lost then travel through conductor to cathode, which then undergoes reduction.

In normal situation, we usually have load that is a device that needs to be powered placed in the middle.The process of losing electron is known as oxidation, this happens on the anode.Li (s) –> Li+ (aq)+ e- E0Oxidation = 3.03VThe process in which electrons are gained are called reduction it happens on the cathode.2H+(s) + 2e- –> H2 (aq) E0Reduction = 0.00VThese reactions are often referred as half equation, the full equation can be produced when the two half equations are combined. E0 refers to (Electromotive Force) or E.

M.F, this indicates the reactivity of the metals. With strongest reductant having the most negative value on the table and the strongest oxidant with the highest positive value.3 The amount of voltage and current a cell produces depends on the type of chemicals used to react with; while the endurance of a battery depends on the amount of active material within the battery and its actual design. The amount a cell gives out can be calculated by looking at their E.M.F. Table 1.

give you numerous E.M.F values of different compounds. Every compound has their own EMF, it is the tendency to gain or lose electrons, in relation with other compounds. The larger the difference will result a higher potential difference, and better battery.To demonstrate how to find the theoretical value of a galvanic cell, we can look at the chemical process in a Lithium battery. Lithium is a very promising material as it has high E.M.F value. Lithium batteries are small and light therefore they are only used when lightweight and small size is an important issue.Li (s) –> Li+ (aq)+ e- E0Oxidation = 3.03VH+(s) + e- –> 1/2 H2 (aq) E0Reduction = 0.00V +Li(s) + H+(s) –> Li+(s) + 1/2 H2 (g) E0 = 3.03V1.

4 Demonstration of Simple Galvanic cell:Aim/Purpose:To help illustrate a simple battery for readers.Figure 3.4 Diagram of Cu(s)/Cu2+(aq)||Zn2+(aq)/Zn(s)Result:The experiment was set up as Figure 3. for the material and method please refer to Appendix 1.1, and the E.M.F acquired from the experiment was 0.868V.Data Analysis:Electricity does exist within the battery; some of us may ask what actually happened during the experiment? What is oxidation and what is reduction? Why do they give out electricity? And how does it happen? So far we know that oxidation is a process of losing electrons, it happens in Anode. This is the reaction that happens in the anode side.Anode: Zn (s) –> Zn2+ (aq)+ 2e- 0.76VThe solid Zinc, has lost its electrons and become positively charged. The lost electrons then travel to the cathode side, in which reduction takes place. The electrons that travelled ended up joining the copper, and the load was powered in the process.Cathode: Cu2+(s) + 2e- –> Cu (aq) 0.34VZn (s) –> Zn2+ (aq)+ 2e- E0Oxidation = 0.76VCu2+(s) + 2e- –> Cu (aq)___ E0Reduction = 0.
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34V +Zn + Cu2+ –> Zn2+ + Cu2+(s) E0 = 1.1VThis experiment was done in S.T.P, all concentration used were 1M and the temperature was relatively closed to 25?C. The theoretical value can be found by adding the amount of E.M.F (Electromotive Force), which is the rate in which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit5. In theory the wet cell can give off 1.1V, (0.76V + 0.34V) but the procedure was not kept at high detail to get accuracy therefore energy are lost to environment and only 0.868V is detected. Which is around 78.9% of the theoretical value, some of the energy was probably lost into the environment during the process of oxidation, or probably the inaccuracy of the voltmeter used during the experiment may have affected the result.

P.T.OModern Battery / Dry CellFig 46.

Cutaway view of an alkaline battery.Figure 4. shows the new modern battery found in the supermarket nowadays. This type of cell is still based on the wet/ galvanic cell but it is far more complex in comparison to the wet cell discussed earlier. Most of us do not realise the fact that the outer casing of the battery is made by Zinc and is the anode of the battery. The pointy ends, is in-fact a graphite rod that act as the cathode surrounded by paste consisting manganese dioxide and ammonium chloride as well as zinc chloride, which act as the electrolyte.

On the outer casing of the battery the zinc undergoes oxidationZn(s) –> Zn2+(aq)+ 2e-On the cathode, the reaction is as follow:2MnO2 (s) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- –> Mn2O3 (s) + H2O (l)The 2H+(aq) needed in the reduction process is gained from the electrolyte within the paste, the reaction producing 2H+(aq) follows this reaction,NH+4 (aq) –> NH3 (aq) + H+(aq)There are three common dry-cell batteries, and they usually are classified by different electrolyte used in the battery. The battery mentioned at the top is mildly acidic dry-cell battery. In an acid based battery usually sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used while in an alkaline battery the electrolyte is replaced with 7M KOH, alkaline batteries use powdered zinc anode is used to enhance reaction. Alkaline dry cell can last longer, however it does cost more than normal dry cells. Acid based battery is used in automobile batteries, but not in household battery as they are corrosive and seen as dangerous

Rape and Other Sexual Violence Custom Essay

Rape is a grave crime, but it can be battled with awareness. Rape remains to be one of the most prevalent crimes in present society. It is a crime which affects the person’s well-being entirely, as rape comes with physical, emotional, social and psychological repercussions. Anyone can be a victim; race, gender and age do not matter.

It is therefore necessary that all efforts must be made to avoid this crime from occurring. The only way rape can be battled is through information dissemination. It is this author’s stand that people can only protect themselves if they are aware of the nature of rape and if they know how to protect themselves.This research paper aims to discuss the pertinent details of the crime of rape. Rape is basically sex without consent (Cleveland Clinic Foundation [CCF], 2005). It is considered rape when the sexual act is done against the will of the other person involved. Force is primarily used to make that person submit.

More often than not, drugs and liquor are used to inebriate the victim. Violence is also utilized. Rape covers anal, oral and vaginal intercourse. No one is spared from this act; men, women and children can be raped.

It must be noted that rape is considered a felony; therefore, it is a grave crime (CCF, 2005).Statistics reveal that many have become victims of the crime of rape, regardless of gender or age. According to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network or RAINN (2008), out of six American women, there is one who has been victimized of either attempted rape or complete rate.

The organization also notes that a total number of 17. 7 million female Americans have been victimized by either attempted rape or completed rape (RAINN, 2008). In the year 2003, out of ten rape victims, nine were female. Between 2004 and 2005, a total of 64,080 women were rape victims.

However, women are not the only victims or rape.In the United States alone, 2. 78 million men have been raped or sexual assault. It was also established that 1one in 33 American males have been victims of either attempted rape or completed rape. Children are also not spared from this crime; RAINN (2008) states that 15% of all rape and sexual assault victims are under the age of 12. Just as there are many victims of rape, there are also many effects of this crime.

The effects of rape results in both physical and emotional harm (CCF, 2005). The physical harm that is caused by rape is more evident than its emotional counterpart.To begin with, rape can definitely cause genital or anal damage. If the attacker used violence against the victim, this can result in wounds and bruises. Bones could also be broken if too much force was exerted. Rape victims are also at risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Victims may acquire syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes and even acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS. Rape can also cause unwanted pregnancy (CCF, 2005).

Though not as obvious as the physical harm, the emotional pain which resulted from rape proves to be more devastating.The victim has the tendency to feel guilty about the act of being rape, even if it was not his or her fault (CCF, 2005). Initially, rape victims will feel humiliation and a sense of worthlessness. Over time, other psychological problems will surface.

Rape victims tend to be more afraid, depressed and angry; they also have a difficult time trusting people. Sleeping also proves to be a tedious task for victims. There is much difficulty in falling asleep. Even if they are lucky to fall asleep, nightmares may occur. Then, remaining asleep also becomes problematic.

Flashbacks of the traumatic experience may also occur.Because of this, victims may not derive pleasure from future consensual sexual acts because they could recall the abuse. If the rapist was male, the victim would have a hard time being attracted to men. These emotional effects can linger for as long as the victim’s lifetime. However, the emotional harm may be alleviated through counseling (CCF, 2005). Just as there are many emotional effects, there are also many different types of rape.

This is because while rape can be given a general definition, there are still debates as to what really constitutes the act of rape (Herman, 2008).The types of rape include stranger rape, date rape, statutory rape, partner rape and male rape (Herman, 2008; RAINN, 2008). The first type of rape is stranger rape.

As the name suggests, stranger rape occurs when the attacker is unknown or not related to the victim. RAINN (2008) enumerates the three categories of this type of rape: blitz sexual assault, contact sexual assault and home invasion sexual assault. Blitz sexual assault occurs when the attacker quickly and violently rapes a person with which he or she has no previous contact. This kind of stranger rape often happens at public venues during night time.Contact sexual assault occurs when the attacker exerts effort in directly contacting the victim before the actual assault happens.

In this situation, the suspect attempts to earn the trust and confidence of the potential victim. Suspects usually frequent bars to search for victims and bring these victims to their cars. Home invasion sexual assault occurs when the suspect breaks into the home of the potential victim to commit rape. In all three categories, the victims’ reactions to the rape are the same.

Victims feel shocked and numb. The swiftness of the attack leaves victims disoriented and feeling out of control.After the deed, the feel afraid and vulnerable; they seem helpless in their situation (RAINN, 2008). Another type is date rape, also known as acquaintance rape.

This type of rape occurs when the attacker is known to the victim; the parties involved could be friends, people involved in a past romantic relationship or current lovers (Herman, 2008; RAINN, 2008). Research reveals that the chances of being raped by an acquaintance are higher than the chances of being sexually assaulted by a relative or a complete stranger (Herman, 2008). In the case of date rape, there are many factors to consider.First, being in a romantic relationship or being intimate does not signify consent (RAINN, 2008). Second, consent must be given in every occasion of sexual intimacy; this consent must be affirmed as the sexual activity progresses. For example, consent must be given as two people move from kissing to petting, and so on. Lastly, it must be considered that this type of rape is driven by a desire for control and an intention to hurt and humiliate (RAINN, 2008).

Date rape occurs in three stages and is accompanied by both physical and emotional reactions (RAINN, 2008). The three stages of date rape are intrusion, desensitization and isolation.In the first stage, the suspect tries to invade another’s personal space or comfort zone. This is done by exposing personal details about oneself or exhibiting seemingly harmless physical contact.

In the second stage, the victim is already at ease with the suspect so the latter does not appear as a threat. The victim may feel uncomfortable at times, but this feeling will soon be disregarded. The last stage occurs when the suspect takes advantage of the victim’s trust to set a distance from others. Like in all rape cases, victims of date rape may experience fear, helplessness and sleeping troubles.However, date rape may also result in eating problems, substance abuse, and even suicide (RAINN, 2008). The third type is statutory rape.

This type of rape is defined as sexual intercourse wherein the victim is minor or is too young to provide consent (Herman, 2008). The consenting age for sexual activity varies from one state law to another. The consenting age is usually not above 18 years old. Most states have laws which impose harsher punishment when the victim involved is younger. In addition, sexual intercourse could be considered as statutory rape when the victim cannot provide consent due to reasons aside from age.

This includes sexual intercourse with victims who were unconscious, intoxicated or mentally incapacitated. This is considered rape because the victim in question is not only incapable of proper judgment, but also incapable of resisting the attacker. Therefore, the victim is rendered incapable to protect him or herself (Herman, 2008). The fourth type is partner rape. This type of rape occurs when sexual intercourse happens without the other person’s consent; the suspect in this type of rape can either be the husband, “current or previous partner, or co-habitator” (RAINN, 2008).

The rape of a spouse is referred to as spousal or marital rape (Herman, 2008). Before, laws did not acknowledge the possibility of rape occurring between husband and wife. At present, due to the prevalence of domestic violence, the laws have been changed (Herman, 2008). There are three subtypes of partner rape, and just like date rape, it comes with intense physical and emotional consequences (RAINN, 2008). The three subtypes of partner rape are battering rape, force-only rape and obsessive/sadistic rape. Battering rape is characterized by both physical and sexual abuse.While the victim is being sexually assaulted, he or she is also being physically abused.

In some cases, after being physically abused, the sexual assault will follow. Force-only rape is driven by the suspect’s need to preserve power and control. One’s feeling of domination is achieved through the assault of the partner. Meanwhile, obsessive/sadistic rape includes perversion and torture. This type of rape is marked by extreme violence. Due to the violent nature of this type of rape, it is then expected that the victim would physically suffer from the consequences.Physical injuries from partner rape include bruises and lacerations, as well as broken bones and muscle damage. If the suspect did use weapons, injuries from those are also expected. Pregnant victims may miscarry or suffer from stillbirth. It is also possible that victims may contract sexually-transmitted disease. As for the emotional repercussions, the victims feel betrayed and lose their trust in people; this stems from the fact that their suspects used to be someone close to them (RAINN, 2008).
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The last type of rape is male rape.The traditional notion about rape is that women are always the victims while men are the usual suspects (Herman, 2008). However, it is also possible that men could be rape victims. Because the traditional notion still holds at present society, male rape is not as discussed as female or child rape. This is the reason why the issues of male rape victims are left unaddressed (RAINN, 2008).

Male rape is accompanied with emotional and psychological consequences. To begin with, victims will feel shame and embarrassment (RAINN, 2008). Because of this, male victims will hesitate to report the crime to the authorities.There are two reasons behind this hesitation. First, male rape victims will refuse to seek help because of the possibility of public judgment. To seek help means relaying the story repeatedly to different individuals; this presents the risk of being unfairly judged.

Second, the victim will refrain from seeking help to protect his family from the same judgment. In addition, the refusal to report to the authorities can also be a victim’s way to protect his privacy. The shame and embarrassment will eventually result in withdrawal and alienation in society.Moreover, male rape could also result in relationship problems and identity issues.

The relationships of the victims can be affected by the assault itself, the victim’s reaction to the assault, other people’s feedback to the assault, or all of these factors combined. Meanwhile, identity issues could arise for both heterosexual and homosexual male victims. Heterosexual men suffer from what is referred to as “homosexual panic”; this is characterized by the fear of becoming homosexual due to the assault (RAINN, 2008). As a result, the victim may no longer feel confident about his masculinity.

As for homosexuals, the assault may lead them to self-hatred because of their sexual orientation. The rape may seem like punishment for their homosexuality (RAINN, 2008). Regardless of the type of rape they have experienced, all victims share a similarity. That similarity is the trauma which comes from the experience of being raped, also known as the Rape Trauma Syndrome or RTS (Rape Victims Advocates [RVA], 2008). This syndrome, discovered by Ann Wolbert Burgess and Lynda Lytle Holmstrom, is a group of responses to the stress a rape victim had experienced during the crime.RTS includes the person’s response to the fear of dying, which every rape victim feels while being assaulted. RTS has two phases: the Acute or Initial Phase, and the Reorganization Phase. Both of these phases showcase both the emotional and physical issues that need to be addressed after the experience (RVA, 2008) The Acute or Initial Phase begins from the first few days and may last until the next few weeks following the rape (RVA, 2008).

During this time, the victim’s life is in the state of disorder; this disorder is caused by the fear of death which accompanied the assault.The main emotional concern of this phase is the apparent contrast. In one moment, a victim may appear emotional and hysterical; in another moment, the same victim may seem calm and collected. The reasons for such contrast are the two styles of emotional responses during the Acute or Initial Phase: expressed and controlled (RVA, 2008). The expressed style and the controlled style are very different.

The expressed style of responding emotionally is characterized by an open exhibition of the victim’s real feelings (RVA, 2008). The victim may cry or laugh, become very talkative and even a little edgy.In contrast, the controlled style is characterized by the victim’s efforts to keep his or her emotions in check. The real emotions are bottled up inside, making the victim appear composed and unaffected.

These styles show how different people react to such traumatic experience. Nonetheless, a single person may display both styles in dealing with the experience (RVA, 2008). The physical concerns of the Acute or Initial Phase are the immediate effects on the body as well as the behavioral disruptions. During the first few days after the attack, the victim will experience soreness and pain in various parts of the body (RVA, 2008).The pain is most concentrated on the body parts which were directly assaulted. Aside from the evident bodily harm, there are other ways in which the trauma will manifest itself. One such example would be through the changes in one’s behavioral pattern. Rape victims will experience significant change in their sleeping and eating habits.

They can eat and sleep more than they used to; they could also be unable to sleep or eat at all. Nightmares are inevitable, but sometimes this kind of dreams can bring the victims closer to healing (RVA, 2008).Meanwhile, the Reorganization Phase starts several weeks after the rape took place and may last until a few months after the attack (RVA, 2008). During this time, the rape victim restarts anew after the rape has occurred. This phase marks the beginning of a person’s ability to cope.

There are four factors which are to be considered in the Reorganization Phase: personality, support system, current life issues and previous sexual assault. Personality indicates whether the victim had already established coping mechanisms, which played a part in their recovery from past stress and trauma.Support system is the network of family and friends which the rape victim can utilize for emotional support. Current life issues refer to the victim’s problems other than the rape, which may exacerbate the trauma.

This includes substance or alcohol dependency, divorce and the like. Lastly, previous sexual assault refers to an attack which may have occurred within a few short years prior to the immediate rape. The latter may hamper the healing process (RVA, 2008). While there are four factors to consider in the Reorganization Phase, there are also four areas of concern during the said phase (RVA, 2008).The first is the social area. The victims will have difficulty reorienting himself or herself into society. They will exhibit distrust in people; if the suspect was male, the victim will specifically be distrustful of men.

If the victim was raped alone, he or she may constantly look for companionship. If the victim was gang-raped, he or she will only seek the company of a selected few. In an effort to restore the normalcy of their lives, victims resort to significant changes in their life. This may include moving to a different house, leaving school or changing their jobs (RVA, 2008).The second area of concern is the victim’s psychological state (RVA, 2008). Generally, denial of the rape and its effects are normal occurrences. Though it is a recognized step to recovery, denial which lasts longer than usual can hinder recovery.

Also, the victim has the tendency to blame him or herself for the attack; this would result in guilt, loss of self-esteem and depression. In addition, the victim may develop certain phobias. For instance, if the attack occurs outside the home, the victim may be scared to go out of the house. If the suspect’s breath smelled of liquor, such odor may haunt the victim and cause nausea.Overall, victims are expected to suffer from paranoia or panic attacks (RVA, 2008). There are also sexual concerns during the Reorganization Phase (RVA, 2008).

Because sex was used as a means for punishment and control, most victims will have difficulty deriving pleasure from future sexual activities. This is because the line between rape and consensual sex is blurred. Physical pain during intercourse and difficulty in relaxing are expected. In most cases, victims will become unresponsive to sex. Others, however, may seek sex constantly.

A victim’s attitude will fall under either of these responses (RVA, 2008).The fourth concern is physical in nature (RVA, 2008). The victim may suffer from continuous problems in the genitals. If the rape involved physical abuse, the pain during the attack may recur. Other problems which may continue include worrying about the possibility of sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, and sleeping difficulties (RVA, 2008). The aforementioned phases are keys to recovery. Though recovery is important, just as important is the victim’s action immediately after the attack.

What should be done after rape has occurred? First and foremost, a victim must proceed to a safe place away from the attacker (RAINN, 2008).Second, the victim must seek help from the authorities. If he or she is scared to contact to the police, the person in question must contact a rape crisis center (CCF, 2005). It is crucial that the victim must not wash, douche or brush their teeth (CCF, 2005; RAINN, 2008). It is necessary that all evidence of the attack must be kept, including bodily fluids (CCF, 2005). If possible, a victim should try to remember as much details as she can about the rape and the rapist (RAINN, 2008). The next step would be a visit to the emergency room (CCF, 2005). Rape victims need to be examined by health professionals.

All injuries will be documented before treatment can begin. The reason why washing or douching is discouraged is because semen and other fluid samples left by the attacker will be collected. These can be used for the identification and conviction of the suspect (CCF, 2005). It is true that rape can be prevented. Nonetheless, there is not a single set of guidelines which can guarantee that one would not be attacked (CCF, 2005). Instead, there are safeguards which can help protect people and prevent this crime from happening. First, recognize the surroundings (RAINN, 2008).

One must know the location and the kind of people in that location. Refrain from using music headphones or earphones. Second, stay away from isolated and dimly lit places. Isolation makes seeking help during an attack more problematic.
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Avoid isolated paths and shortcuts; stick with populated public areas. Third, appear confident. Even if one is lost, it must seem like he or she knows what they are doing. Fourth, do not ignore your instincts. If a certain venue does not make one feel uneasy, he or she must leave. Fifth, try to carry as few bags or packages as possible. Having both hands full can make one more vulnerable to an attack.Sixth, always keep your cell phone charged; also keep emergency numbers on the cell phone.

Seventh, always have cash and change on hand in case of emergency. Eighth, make sure you are not left alone with someone of questionable character. To those with vehicles, the doors must always be kept locked. Have a constant supply of car essentials. Always keep the gas tank full or at least half-filled.

At home, keep doors locked as well. Regularly change locks and do not keep windows or blinds open (RAINN, 2008). These are some guidelines which can be followed to protect oneself from assault and prevent rape.To further prevent oneself from being raped, one must be made aware of the new ways in which people can be victimized. While technology has indeed proven useful and convenient, it also is disadvantageous as it can be used to harm other people. The Internet is currently being used by suspects as a means to commit rape; it is referred to as internet rape.

BBC News (2001) reported that 45-year-old Phillip Bugler was charged for raping a 15-year-old schoolgirl he met over the internet. It was said that Bugler convinced the girl to ride in his car, brought her to a hotel, locked the door and raped her.In a related story, the Boston Globe reported that 31-year-old Joseph Silva was charged with aggravated felonious sexual assault when he allegedly drugged the drink of the woman he met online and raped her (Mishra, 2006). These stories are proof that the internet is being used by criminals to search for victims. Another technologically pitfall presented by computers is the lack of privacy.

Computers hold valuable information which can be accessed by anyone. This information would be detrimental if it falls in the hands of a potential stalker.Fortunately, there are steps to protect one’s privacy in the computer (RAINN, 2008). If one suspects that he or she is being tracked by someone through the computer, here are the necessary steps which can be done to keep your privacy. First, clean the cache and history of the computer. Second, delete all the cookies on the computer. Third, secure the computer; do not allow other people to have access.

If other people can access it and if one feels being monitored, it is important that he or she must seek a safer computer by using computers in a library or a community center (RAINN, 2008).Just as rape can be prevented, its effects can also be treated. It cannot be denied that rape can cause emotional and psychological damage to a victim. Fortunately, there are treatments which can be provided for rape victims. One of the effects of rape is known as the posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD (Falsetti & Bernat, 2000). There are many kinds of available treatment for rape victims which suffer from PTSD.

Treatments include stress inoculation training, prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy and multiple channel exposure therapy (Falsetti & Bernat, 2000).In stress inoculation training (SIT), rape victims learn how fear arises as a response to trauma and how they control their fear through designed exercises; this control will eventually be tested through application. This kind of therapy has three stages, and was proven to be most effective for female rape victims. Prolonged exposure (PE) is a method of treatment referred to as flooding; in this treatment, victims are constantly bombarded with traumatic images in an effort to decrease fear and anxiety. This kind of treatment is considered as better in dealing with PTSD than mere counseling.

Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) treats both PTSD and depression in rape victims. The objective of this treatment is for the victim to understand and deal with the emotions and beliefs about the rape. In this kind of treatment, victims are guided to confront their feelings and comprehend the attack in a different perspective. This treatment can be performed either in groups or individually. Lastly, multiple channel exposure therapy (MCET) is a treatment which derived techniques from SIT, CPT and “Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic” (Falsetti & Bernat, 2000).Originally, this therapy was meant for the treatment of general trauma, in cases such as domestic violence. However, it has now been adapted for the treatment of rape victims which suffer from PTSD and panic attacks (Falsetti & Bernat, 2000). With these treatments, rape victims can regain control over their lives and start anew after such traumatic experience.

Rape is a serious crime, a pertinent social concern which needs to be resolved and addressed. There are many types of rape, just as there are many consequences of such attack.While rape cannot be directly avoided, there are ways in which individuals can protect themselves to prevent this from happening. However, the only way people can protect themselves is through awareness. It is necessary that the public is made aware of the necessary information about rape and its prevention. This calls for thorough information dissemination in the community.

It is in this way in which the community can be vigilant in its efforts to decrease the number of rape victims. Information and awareness are the keys in fighting the prevalence of rape.

Protecting Older People from Abuse Custom Essay

Those who are vulnerable, like the elderly are more likely to be a victim of abuse, however abuse can happen to anybody, by anyone, at any time.

This is why it is important to know the different types of abuse and the possible signs of it, as it can help provide them with safety and protection. Although if somebody is exhibiting these signs it does not automatically mean they are a victim of abuse as there may be a good explanation. For example those of a more elderly age has skin that bruises much easier so bruised skin may be from where they accidentally banged themselves.This shouldn’t be assumed however and deciding if someone is being abused or not is usually a difficult and lengthy process that may not be found out for years, it is usually a combination of factors that gives more of a clue to the whole situation. Elder abuse can be defined as “‘A single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person”(who.

int/ageing/projects/elder_abuse/en, 08/03/12).There are many types of abuse and some of these are usually combine together, some ways in which older service users can be abused include, physically, verbally, emotionally, sexually and financially. Physical abuse is probably the most often thought of abuse when someone is asked about elder abuse.

This may because physical injuries are sometimes easier to identify and most people don’t like the idea that someone that is stronger or in a position of trust can assault someone of a venerable position.Physical abuse is causing someone pain or injury, for example by hitting, pushing, slapping, shaking, striking, beating, shoving, kicking and/or using an item as a weapon towards somebody. Also physically restraining somebody in an inappropriate manner is also counted as physical abuse. This can include tying them down, this can lead to bruising. “Freedom of movement becomes limited, and over a period of time the use of restraints may result in deconditioning and muscle atrophy” (Falls in the Nursing Home, Ann Intern Med 1994 Sep 15; 121(6):442-51).Likewise an elderly person should not be given medication in a means to restrain them, unless these medications are needed to treat symptoms.

Medicating an elderly person in a way that is of benefit staff or careers is physical abuse, for example giving them extra medication to make them sleep longer or to discipline them. Likewise withholding medication that is prescribed to them, for example not letting them have pain relieve medication when they are in a lot of pain, is also elder abuse, this can come under both physical abuse and neglect. The prescription or administering of medication that is not licensed for the purpose used, often described as the ‘soft cosh’ because of the impact that it can have. ” (elderabuse.

org. uk, 08/03/12) There can be many signs of physical abuse, however these can sometimes be covered by the abuser or victim and any injuries that go unexplained should be investigated fully.These may also be called indicators, there can be physical signs or indicators, such as bruises or behavioral indicators such as the victim changing in the way they act or interact with other people, especially in the way that the victim and abuser are towards one another.

Signs should not be taken as conclusive proof and instead patterns or someone with many signs may be more of an indicator. Sometimes signs of physical elder abuse may go on noticed, “They may appear to be symptoms of dementia or signs of the elderly person’s frailty – or caregivers may explain them in that way. and it is true that some signs and symptoms are similar as those of mental deterioration; however this doesn’t mean that they should be ignored. Some signs that someone has physically abusing an elderly person can be malnourishment or dehydration without any other ill related causes.

Also prove of medication that has been over or under dosed, been given inappropriately or not been given at all.There may be laboratory evidence of this, or there may be a report of a drug overdose or care workers may say that the service user failed to take their medication as they refused it, this may happen on an often occurrence, and although the service user may be doing this if they seem to take it fine with other service user’s that it may be a sign that that particular care worker may be withholding the prescribed drugs. Another sign that this is happening is that there may be more prescribed drugs remaining than there should be even though the care worker hasn’t said the service user refused to take them.These signs sometimes come under medication abuse which “may include withholding medication, over-medicating or not complying with prescriptions refills. ” (edmontonpolice. ca/communitypolicing/familyprotection/elderabuse.
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aspx, 08/03/12) Physical signs such as bruises and scars can also be a sign of physical abuse; however this may be from an accident. This can especially be a sign if they seem to be on two sides of the body in a symmetrical way or if they appear in regular patterns or clusters in areas such as the groin or neck.Although the elderly are usually fragile, broken bones, sprains and fractures can also be a sign of physical abuse.

Any other signs of physical abuse can include things such as cuts, open wounds, black eyes, welts and any other injuries at any stage of healing or that haven’t been treated properly. Burns can also be a sign of physical abuse, these are most commonly around the palms, soles or buttocks, but can be in any other place, they may appear as cigarette burns or larger burns.Signs of being restrained can also be a sign of physical abuse, such as rope marks on the wrists, restraint is “any manual method, physical or mechanical device, or equipment that immobilizes or reduces the ability of the person to move his or her arms, legs, body or head freely (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Effective 1-1-08) this can include medicine used to restrain people. Physical restraint can be used in care settings, however this needs to be at a last resort and only if someone or the person themselves is going to come to harm if the restraint isn’t used.Even with expectable restraints there is a lot of controversy as they are believed to be unnecessary and sometimes cause further problems of distress in the service user.

In most cases good care workers try and find alternatives and they may first of all discuss the use of restraint with the service user or an advocate. In the UK it is unlawful to use restraining belts, cuffs and vests that are designed to keep the service user restrained to a bed or chair; however in other countries this may be accepted.Broken frames or eyeglasses can also be a sign of physical abuse as they may have become broken due to physical abuse; however they could have broken for other reasons. Poor skin hygiene or conditions lost of weight and a solid bed or clothing can also be signs, as well as being in pain. There may also be a change in the service users behavior, for example they may become withdrawn and act differently, this is even often the case for service users that are less able to communicate their feelings, it may still be shown that they have a change in their behavior.They may act in a distressed, anxious way and become angry and upset, or becoming more angry then usual, for example they may shout and/or cry. They may tell someone that they have been a subject to abuse or complain via written or verbal communications.

If a service user does do this then it should be taken seriously, the steps on what to do if this does happen are detailed later on. Unaccountable injuries and/ or “the refusal of the caretaker to allow visitors to see the elder alone” elder-abuse-(information. om, 09/03/12) can also be a sign of physical abuse as the care giver may not want others to see the proof or may not want the victim to tell others. The victim may also wince away when someone goes to touch them as they may think they are going to get harmed so they become extra fearful. Another type of abuse is verbal abuse, this can take on many forms and is usually linked to emotional abuse due to the way it can make people feel about their self’s. Such as critizing, degrading, insulting, calling names, threatening, screaming, and making people feel bad about themselves by belittling them.

This can also include racial, sexist and ageist comments. Verbal abuse usually involves the abuser judging the victim and the abuser may put the victim down even for something the victim is proud of doing. This can make the victim feel down about their self’s and lower their self-esteem and confidence. They may stop doing an activity they enjoy because of what an abuser has said. “Disparaging comments disguised as jokes and withholding communication are also examples of verbal abuse” (troubledwith.

om, 09/03/12), this type of abuse can lead to a service user feeling worthless, like they deserve it, especially if the abuser is using degrading comments. It can also lead the victim to believe it is true, they may feel it is their fault why they are being treated that way. They may feel they are a burden and are causing stress towards their care givers and that they deserve to be spoken to in that way. However that is not true and this can be also counted as emotional abuse. They may believe as there are no visual scars it can’t count as abuse, but this is also untrue.Abusers may also verbally harass an elder to gain financially; they may use their account details, steal money or even partake in identity theft. This can also come under financial abuse but sometimes verbal abuse is included to belittle the victim or confuse them.

“The abuser might tell the elder that he’s won a prize and that he must pay in order to claim, create a phony charity for the senior to donate money to or engage in investment fraud” (ehow. com, 09/03/12). Verbal abuse does not always have to be done via oral communication, it can also be done by written communication or the use of hand signals.For example by writing threatening letters or using hand gestures to offend someone.

Verbal abuse is usually a pattern of behavior from the abuser and it can interfere with the victim’s positive emotional development and can be detrimental to their physical state, allowing the abuser to take and feel as though they are in control. One of the problems with verbal abuse is that sometimes the abuser may not realize they are doing it, sometimes the victim may laugh along, when really they are hurt. This is why people should be careful about what they say and how they say it.In some cases jokes may be all right if the people have formed a good relationship and know where each other stand and have spoken properly about it.

However friendly jokes are best avoided in care settings. Care workers can also verbally abuse someone by talking as if they are not there, for example yelling down the corridor ‘she’s wet the bed again’ As this is inappropriate and doesn’t provide the service user with dignity of care. There can be many signs that an elder person is or has been verbally abused and these signs are usually similar to emotional abuse. They may behave differently and be upset, agitated or angry.They may become withdrawn and non-communicative and want to be isolated from family and friends. They may have a change in behavior or unusual behavior such as biting, rocking and sucking.

They may become hostile to others and be insulting and threatening family and friends. In most situations verbal abuse comes along with emotional abuse, however other types of abuse are very likely to affect an elder emotionally and psychologically.A definition of both verbal and emotional abuse can be “discrimination on the basis of age, insults and hurtful words, denigration, intimidation, false accusations, psychological pain and distress. (ageuk. org.

uk, 10/03/12) Another form of abuse is emotional abuse; the main means of this is for the abuser to gain control. Emotional abuse can be anything from subtle words to being physically abusive and dominating. Emotional abuse can also include manipulation. The abuser can be “insulting, threatening, devaluing, mocking, controlling, critical, and undermining of self-esteem and worth” (everydayhealth. com, 10/03/11). The abuser may also withhold things from the victim, for example they may not allow them to see their family or friends.Emotional abuse can occur in many ways and this is why it can be hard to tell if someone is being emotionally abused. Even the abuser may not realize that they are causing someone else emotional pain.

Sometimes the abuser may also brainwash the victim to thinking it is their fault or/and that the carer does really care for them they are just taking things out of proportion. This can lead to the victim to not saying anything as they may not realize that they are being emotionally abused as they have been tricked into accepting it.This may cause the victim to become ashamed, especially if the abuser repeats the same hurtful words many times. The victim begins to believe it and they may feel that they are a burden and their career is just stressed. “Their abuser has often isolated them through intimidation. They are reluctant to trust others because they fear angering their abuser” (David Sack, MD, the CEO of Promises Treatment Centers in California and the author of many journal articles on depression).

As said under verbal abuse (which is closely linked to emotional abuse) the abuser may ridicule or humiliate the victim, calling them hurtful names.This can make a service user to become annoyed and they may show this through a change of behavior, such as becoming more angry and hostile towards others. So this can be a sign of emotional abuse.

Emotional abuse is increasing towards the elderly and this may be due to people living to older ages which is causing the amount of dependent elderly to go up so the prevalence of emotional abuse towards the elderly is also rising. Emotional (or psychological) abuse towards the elderly causes them emotional pain and distress, it may make them feel inadequate and lead to them having less confidence and a low-self esteem.This can cause them to blame them self for things, for example they may say ‘I’m a nuisance aren’t I’. A career can also cause emotional abuse in other non-verbal ways, for example they may ignore them or deliberately isolate them from activities or seeing their friends or families, this is one sign of emotional abuse can be a victim suddenly withdrawing from seeing friends r family without warning. They may also terrorize or menace the elderly person. Although emotional abuse may be difficult to spot there may be some signs pointing towards it.Especially if a career is seen being verbally abusive towards an elderly person. The victim may also seem frightened of the specific abuser, they may try to over please them in fear of causing them to become angry.

“As a result, actions and access are controlled, and the person often seems to have no freedom or capacity to make independent decisions. ” (sharecare. com, 10/03/12) The victim may think before they act as they begin judging everything they do based on the way the abuser is going to react. This may cause depression or sleeping/ eating disorders, which can be another sign to look out for.Another way elderly people may be abused is sexually. This is sexual contact with an elderly person without their consent, it can also include acts such as making an elderly person watch sex acts or look at pornographic material, also considered as elder sexual abuse is forcing an elderly person to undress.

Sexual abuse on an elderly may be planned, for example a abuser may try and get a job in a residential home as they have certain service users. Or it may be in a result of opportunity that the care worker sees.In some cases sexual abuse may have been carried on from an earlier age into old age.

“There are also reported cases of older woman from minority communities being targeted because of their ethnic origins” (minorityrights. org, 10/03/12). Although sexual abuse is a crime it is often denied by the elderly and they often chose to suffer in silence, they begin to feel guilty like it is their fault, when it is not. The trouble with this is not only the fact that the abuser goes on to abuse many other people and potentially ruining lives or causing people distress and depression.

But also the opportunity for prove that it happened may be missed. Sometimes people that have been told by others that they have been sexually abuse may react by offering that they can have a bath and to wash their clothes, although this is meant to be a kind gesture it means that forensic evidence can be lost. So it is important that this doesn’t happen and instead the police are rang straight away as sexual abuse is a crime no matter what age the victim is.Often an older person will tell what is wrong, even if they are confused. Even with dementia people can often make their feelings known as long as time is taken to listen, observe and take notice” (apa. org 10/03/12) Some signs of sexual abuse can include, genital or breast area having bruises around them, unexplained sexually transmitted infections or venereal disease/ genital infections, bleeding from the vagina or anus that can’t be explained. The victim having a sudden unusual difficulty in walking or standing can be another sign of sexual abuse.

Underclothing that is stained, torn or has blood on it can also be a sign of sexual abuse.Or if an elderly person says they have been abused sexually or raped. In this case the accusation should be taken seriously, even for confused service users and a protocol should be fallowed. Other signs of sexual abuse can include a change in the victim’s behavior; they may feel worthless and embarrassed. They may become angry and hostile and may not want to be left alone with the abuser. The act of sexual abuse may cause them to become fearful, shameful and their self- esteem will be lowered.

They may have extra physical illness or post traumatic stress syndrome, along with many more symptoms such as “insomnia, nightmares, fear of the dark, fear of being alone, and agoraphobia” (familymattersuk. org, 10/03/12). They may start to have eating, drug or alcohol problems and may begin to wear lots of layers of clothes. As sexual abuse is not often reported by elderly people it is important to look out for cues and do the right thing when they do report it. Another type of abuse can be financial abuse, or financial exploitation.This is using resources of an elder inappropriately without permission for somebody else’s benefit, including for the abusers own benefit. This can also come under emotional abuse.

This kind of abuse can range from embezzlement to a misuse of an elderly person’s money and can include; “fraud, taking money under false pretenses, forgery, forced property transfers, purchasing expensive items with the older person’s money without the older person’s knowledge or permission, or denying the older person access to his or her own funds or home” (apa. org, 10/03/12).Sometimes power of attorney, or the use of legal guardianship is used to financially abuse an elder. As well as relatives, friends and families financially abusing an elder, companies set out to scam older people are also included.

Such as mortgage companies, financial managers or sales people. Theft us quite a big problem towards the elderly as people around them enrich their self’s at the elderly person’s dispense by deceiving them “On occasions even banks and solicitors are found to have assisted in the misuse of Enduring Powers of Attorney. (lawsociety. org. uk. 10/03/12) There are many signs of financial abuse and sometimes these are quite clear for example a person may admit they are trying to get a family members money as it will be their inherence anyway, or maybe they may argue with the victim about money and saving some for when they pass away. Other signs can include signatures that look fake which are on financial documents such as cheques; this can especially be a sign if the victim is unable to write. Also changes in the victims will can be a sign of financial abuse.

There may be additional names added to their bank accounts or sudden changes or unexplained withdrawals from the bank account, especially if these are for large sums of money. Another sign of financial abuse can be bills that are going unpaid, such as overdue rent if someone else is meant to be helping with this, or if they lack in things such as clothing, a TV, personal hygiene items and other amenities that they should be able to afford.Another sign can be “The sudden appearance of previously uninvolved relatives claiming their rights to an older person’s affairs or possessions” (elder-abuse-spotlight. logspot. com, 10/03/12) and/or an unusual concern by abuser that too much money is being spent on the care of an older person. Family members or other people suddenly receiving a transfer of assets can also be a indication of financial abuse, as well as disappearance in possessions or funds. A sign that an older person is being financially abused by a career can be that the elderly person is deliberately isolated from their friends and family so that control can be gained by the career.

Another sign can be the older person saying that they are being abused financially, they may not say it as straightforward as this but for example they may complain of repeated phone calls from people moaning about money. Although victims of elderly abuse are not to blame there are many ways of minimizing abuse but one if the first points is for everyone to work in partnerships with individuals and key people to ensure that elder abuse is made aware of and that everyone involved with the care of an older person is educated about elder abuse and the fact that it is not acceptable.Giving older people plenty of support from friends and family as well as making family knowledgeable about respite care so they can have a guilt free break. Combating isolation in older people and allowing them to meet plenty of people gives more of a chance that abuse can be recognized, and isolation can actually be an indication of abuse. “Everyone involved in the care and support of older people must be aware of the existence of elder abuse and be able to provide advice on how to deal with the situation” (ageing.

xfordjournals. org, 10/02/12) Other professionals such as doctors must also be alert to elder abuse and how to identify it. To minimize the impact on older people all professions should be in strong support of multi-agency working, both management and prevention of elderly abuse. Another way an elderly person can help minimize abuse to their selfs is by refusing anyone to have their bank details, they should also set boundaries and not tolerate any one who over steps these.They should also speak up if they are unhappy with the way that they are being treated, they should do everything in their power to be treated right and fairly.

Developing positive, trusting and sensitive relationships with service users to aid communication can also help minimize elder abuse. This will not only help the service user feel more safe and secure so they can open up and explain any abuse that has happened but it will also help the service user to see the differences between a good care worker that doesn’t abuse them to the person who is the abuser.This will help the service user see that it is wrong and that it isn’t their fault. To build an effective relationship with an older service user a care worker will need to build on the trust they have with them, this can come in the form of respecting the service user, their home and their belongings. For example when cleaning a room a care worker may ask the service user where they want things to go, and if they need to go in a draw they might ask before hand just in case the service user doesn’t want them to.This will give the service user dignity as well as privacy.
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This will help build an effective relationship and build the service user trust. It can also help if a care worker knows their own prejudices and how they can effect the way they behave towards a service user, this means that they need to be non-judgmental and getting to know the service user for who they are “Good quality of care requires competently delivered services that meet the client’s needs” (bacp. co.

uk/ethical_framework/good_standard. hp, 10/03/12). If the care worker understands this and knows the limit of their role then it can help minimize abuse as they are less likely to abuse a service user (even by accident) as they understand what they are and are not meant to do.

If a care worker applies the care values in what they do then they are more able to meet the service user’s needs, rights and preferences. This will help the service user feel more worthy which in turn builds up their confidence and self esteem.This can help them feel like they are able to be more independent and they will be more able to say no to abuse and speak up for themselves. This will help minimize abuse as the service user will be more confident and will be less venerable to abusers, it will also help them speak out if they are getting abused as they will have the confidence to do so and realize that it is not their fault and they don’t deserve to be treated in that way.As one of the seven principles of the care value base is to “Acknowledging people’s personal beliefs and identities” (en. wikipedia. org, 10/03/12) these are included in legal and organizational requirements that need to be met which can also help with minimizing abuse.

A care worker has a duty of care which means that they need to work with a person-centered approach where the individual is at the center of their work. Service users should know about their treatment and what it involves so they are able to make informed decisions.Although a service user doesn’t have a right to demand a certain treatment and may not necessarily be able to have a complete choice they still are “able to make informed choices about the most suitable treatments for themselves” (preventelderabuse. org, 10/03/12). Also providing the service user with privacy and dignity can help minimize abuse as they are able to see the correct way in which they should be treated. There are certain actions to be taken when abuse is recognized or reported and systems and procedures that should be followed in order to safeguard older service users from abuse.

It should be reconised by both service users and care workers that care workers cannot keep a promise that they wont pass on information about abuse. This reason for this is to protect the service user as well as others. However it should be known that this type of information will only be passed on to those who need to know it and it will remain confidential to just these people. Here is a flow chart that shows what usually happens if abuse is suspected in an elderly person.

The Terrorism Act 2000


Tommy is friends with James and Bill, who are members of an action group called ‘Down with Capitalism’. He speaks to them often as they are old school-friends and they often meet up for drinks in town or at each other’s houses for meals.

James and Bill, as part of their campaign for ‘Down with Capitalism’, break into the National Bank of Britannia and place a bomb which detonates an hour later. James and Bill are caught and face conviction for terrorism related offences. After investigation, the police discover Tommy’s links with James and Bill and believe he is connected directly with ‘Down with Capitalism’.

The police have covertly been carrying out surveillance at James’ house as they are aware of ‘Down with Capitalism’ and the group’s agenda. They have a recording from a bugging device which the police believe to be Tommy’s voice actively discussing the group’s future plans.

PC Michelin, who is leading the investigation, calls in Joyce, a phoneticist, who compares the telephone conversation with recordings of Tommy’s voice. Joyce concludes that the recordings are of the same person. Savill has developed a system of comparing voices by meticulous listening to recordings of the suspect and the recordings of the event itself. His article on the technique in the journal, International and Comparative Phonetics, was criticised by other phoneticists for its overly subjective approach and its lack of methodological rigour. The technique has not become generally accepted in the field of phonetics.

When arrested, Tommy is taken to the police station where he is placed in the cells prior to interview. Whilst in the cells, PC Goodyear constantly tells him that he might as well admit that he was involved with ‘Down with Capitalism’ because they will get him to confess anyway. He tells Tommy that if he confesses, they would release him on bail but if he doesn’t confess they will apply for him to be remanded in custody pending the case going to court. Tommy is a single parent with two very young children. During interview, the officers are very aggressive and shout and scream in Tommy’s face in an attempt to get him to confess. He later says in his third interview that he is a member of ‘Down with Capitalism’ as he is desperate to get home to his children.
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The police charge him with being a member of a terrorist group contrary to s.11(1) of the Terrorism Act 2000.

Advise Tommy regarding the evidential issues that may arise

The Power of Music Custom Essay

People are now playing therapeutic music for patients in hospitals, hospices and other clinical settings to improve their healing. Music seems to be therapeutic to the human mind. Music can also provoke memories.

It can trigger things in our minds that we all have experienced as humans. Music’s power extends to the point where we don’t even have to hear a song, we just have to think of it. When this happens, memories of a particular event or time in our lives that possess or resemble some type of association can come flooding back (Science of People; Danielle M. Baker).

Through these scientific discoveries, we see yet another aspect of the power of music in the human mind. This power can be seen in the composition Forever Music by Mark Hayes and Susan Boersma. Historically and scientifically, it is evident that music has a power that is both unique and universal.

The language of Forever Music is written for the intended purpose of global unification through the power of music. The idea of producing a common ground amongst all people who can hear. The message; music represents life, peace, time, love, and the happy assembly of all people in the world regardless of one’s individual background. Each lyrical element in this piece is intended to allow all people of every culture to share a song. A song that carries meaning applicable to everyone who can hear.

Mark and Susan seem to have envisioned, as demonstrated by the text’s language and rhetoric, a peaceful and unified world that has the deepest appreciation for life and music. The audience for this text is timeless. “… where present, past, and future meet upon a narrow bridge of time.” This work is written for all people of all ages. It is designed to inform the world that each individual life is a song meant to be sung.

The study of this piece, Forever Music, can be broken down into many different segments. We will take time to dissect each phrase in the song with the hope of being able to fully understand the depths of its symbolism and how what it communicates relates to people of every age and from every culture around the world. We will contextualize the songs language though it’s lyrics, and we will also try to gain a better musical understanding for the way that this piece was composed.

We can just as easily dissect the musical element of Forever Music as the lyrical element. These two categories, individually, are imbedded with such meaning, emotion, and symbolism. These are things that we get to discover! There are many years of professional experience between this works creators, and because of this, their experiences enhance their ability, and this songs ability, to reach a timeless audience from every culture.
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Cave Painting The Oldest Humanity Story Custom Essay

One of greatest known art periods, the Paleolithic era, was around 32,000 to 11,000 years ago. Pieces of art from this time period can be placed into two categories; small, detailed figurines/objects, and cave art. The figurines were often carved from bone, stone, or clay. These were materials artists could easily get ahold of. These pieces of art were mostly found in Europe and Siberia. Unlike the portable pieces, cave art was discovered in northern spain as well as France. These often took the form of paintings, or engravings on the walls of caves or on rock like surfaces.

French Paleontologist Edouard Lartet was the first to discover Paleolithic art in the 1860’s. His first discovery was an embellished objects within the caves on Southern France. These discoveries were noted as ancient as they had many similarities to the figures found during the Stone Age. After the small discovery it became a must to find more. People began to dig in caves to look for certain objects, not giving thought to the art already noticeable on the walls.

It wasn’t until 1880 when the discovery of the Paleolithic paintings within the Spanish cave of Altamira were found and given great skepticism. In 1895, walls covered in engravings were discovered in La Mouthe, a cave in France. The lengths of time to discover these pieces of art was set back due to the debris that had originally blocked the entrance to the cave. In 1901, more engravings were found in the same region of France just in a difference cave, Font de Gaume.

It wasn’t until right after that that archaeologists stated that cave art has a true existence. A popular and well known cave, the Chauvet cave, was brought to light by Jean-Marie Chauvet in 1994. The cave is located in the Ardeche Valley in southeast France. This cave is home to many animal paintings that date back to 32,000 years, making them the oldest paintings to be discovered, yet.

It wasn’t that long ago that Paleolithic art was only found inside the cave. In 1981 archaeologists discovered multiple outdoor sites in spain, portugal and south africa. These sites were often found along rivers, on the side of large rocks, or on the entrances of caves. They’re expecting these paintings to be approximately 20,000 years old and were often engravings of human-like figures, horses, and wild cattle. Given the notable amount of repeated engravings/drawings scientists now think this type of artwork was common, despite the little that survived due to the erosion of wind and rain.

Art during this era was thought to either mean two things, figurative, meaning it translates animals and humans, or non figurative, meaning signs and symbols. Animals during this time could also be translated to more than one thing depending on period and region of its use. Art within caves would mostly show animals such as bison, horses or even deer. Fish and birds are also within the paintings and engravings but were usually used more for figurine art. Despite the use of them being different they have one thing in common, they’re all drawn using their profile, or from the side. Some animals are even imaginary, as in the unicorn translated from the cave in Lascaux, France.

Human bodys were not typically found in cave paintings but mostly in small portable statues. These figurines tended to be women yet their bodies often differed from what our social norm would be. For example the small female statues known as the Venus have larger than normal breasts, abdomen and hips. Statues that often represented woman had these over-sized aspects to them. They also didn’t have a face, no eyes or mouth. Making the focus be on their body and nothing else.

Materials used during the Paleolithic era were very broad. They used forms by simply changing the base of a material to give it a new meaning. Beads were also commonly made and used out of ivory. Figurines were made out of ivory or a soft stone, and some were made from clay. Art on cave walls was created using multiple techniques. Some images were created using the shape of the rock or stalagmites it is placed on. The shape would help put emphasis on certain points of the paintings.

On almost all wall sculptures there has been traces of a red pigment which tells scientists that they were painted. This red pigment is made of iron oxide which can be found in clays and ores. Black pigment was made out of manganese or charcoal. These materials were often only available in areas surrounding the cave. Painters often applied the paint with their fingers, giving them more control over the look they want. It was later discovered that some used animal hair brushes or small twigs were used to paint as well. Scientists have repeatedly found chunks of these pigments on cave floors believing they may have been used in pencil-like form.

Within cave art scientists also found paintings on the ceilings of the caves. Although some were too tall to even imagine painting on, others show holes in which were used to help support someone paint on the ceiling. Hearths were often used to shine light within the cave however in deep caves artists would need more of a portable light source. Archaeologists have only found a few known stone lamps, which are also known as torches. The debris of charcoal within the cave also proves that fires must have been lit to use as light.

Like I stated above on the ways painters applied the pigment was with their own hands, and eventually other tools were discovered. However to make special effects such as dots, figures or hand stencils, artists used a technique called “sprayed paint.” The artists would use a mixture of powder pigment, water, and a type of oil and use a straw to spit it onto the walls. This is a great way to help get different textures. Given that the size of cave paintings varies, this technique would have been of great help. For example some of the largest are over 2 m in length, and drawings of bulls at Lascaux measure as long as 5.5 m.
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Introduction to Art Custom Essay

Many people think that Arts sole purpose is to entertain the audience. However, art is more than just entertainment. This topic is very important as Art can have many purposes instead of one. Besides entertainment, there are other purposes such as spreading messages and therapy.

Entertainment is something that holds the attention and enthusiasm of a crowd of people or gives joy. Entertainment can take numerous ways, especially those of a progressive response from the viewer. It is not something to be minded one’s business, however, to be shared, seen, and experienced by others. Entertainment engages the watcher, by holding their attention, drawing in them with the piece, inciting an enthusiastic reaction. (Merrifield,2014) For example, talent show competition like Britain Got Talent, World of Dance competition, etc. These talent show competitions often bring the audience’s laughter, happiness and many other emotions throughout the show.

Art is the expression or software of human innovative ability and imagination, usually in a visible form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated especially for their beauty or emotional power. Art can be open to interpretation, the artist may need every person to frame their own assessments on a piece, making it individual to every individual who reviews it. Anyway, on different occasions, the craftsman might need to convey a reasonable message; regardless of whether it be ideological, political, religious, or something else. Through art, individuals can express their distaste with the present state of world affairs, affect the world to take action, celebrate the individuals who have survived or accomplished extraordinary things, or show the world the true colours of the individuals who have done awful things.

Photography, specifically, is known for this – photographers flying out to creating nations to demonstrate the remainder of the world the genuine horrors of poverty and sickness, catching moments in history to be remembered forever, or to express feelings now and again when the world was not exactly certain how to indicate what it’s inclination, similarly as with the well-known photo of the ‘Falling Man’ from the 9/11 assaults. Art enables everybody to have their say, and doesn’t require individuals to be extraordinary speakers or intelligent people, they can utilize any number of materials to demonstrate the world that they have something imperative to state. What’s more, it can motivate individuals, make them think or drive them energetically, it ought to never be belittled how amazing a tool art is for inciting both idea and action. It is open to everybody and can be delivered by anybody, it is a general language.

Art can also be a form of therapy. Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the creative process of making art to improve a person’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being. This allows the person to express oneself emotions artistically, whether you are an artist. Art therapy can be used to calm one’s inner-self in a way that may provide the individual with a deeper understanding of him or herself. For example, drawing, colouring, painting, doodling, and sculpting are all examples of the art form that can be used as a means of therapy. As well as helping the person by the survey, this kind of craftsmanship individuals can investigate the minds of the ‘outsiders’, see them for once as individuals being extraordinary, however yet the equivalent.

Therefore, Art does not have a​ sole​ purpose but rather has ​multiple​ purposes. Art is a form of entertainment, it carries happiness to people in general and the specialists themselves. Art can be a form of therapy. It is a form of expression which enables people to convey to a larger audience than a basic conversation can. Be that as it may, Art enables individuals to express what words often can’t, and humanity gains a greater understanding of the many people within itself for it. Also, by being a form of therapy, it would allow people to feel a sense of calm and satisfied. This would affect people positively. Art likewise spread messages. Because Art can have many purposes, hence, I feel that spreading messages is one of the most important purposes of the arts. By spreading messages, people around would be able to understand what the artist is trying to covey and how it would affect anyone positively or negatively.
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