Protecting Older People from Abuse Custom Essay

Those who are vulnerable, like the elderly are more likely to be a victim of abuse, however abuse can happen to anybody, by anyone, at any time.

This is why it is important to know the different types of abuse and the possible signs of it, as it can help provide them with safety and protection. Although if somebody is exhibiting these signs it does not automatically mean they are a victim of abuse as there may be a good explanation. For example those of a more elderly age has skin that bruises much easier so bruised skin may be from where they accidentally banged themselves.This shouldn’t be assumed however and deciding if someone is being abused or not is usually a difficult and lengthy process that may not be found out for years, it is usually a combination of factors that gives more of a clue to the whole situation. Elder abuse can be defined as “‘A single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person”(who.

int/ageing/projects/elder_abuse/en, 08/03/12).There are many types of abuse and some of these are usually combine together, some ways in which older service users can be abused include, physically, verbally, emotionally, sexually and financially. Physical abuse is probably the most often thought of abuse when someone is asked about elder abuse.

This may because physical injuries are sometimes easier to identify and most people don’t like the idea that someone that is stronger or in a position of trust can assault someone of a venerable position.Physical abuse is causing someone pain or injury, for example by hitting, pushing, slapping, shaking, striking, beating, shoving, kicking and/or using an item as a weapon towards somebody. Also physically restraining somebody in an inappropriate manner is also counted as physical abuse. This can include tying them down, this can lead to bruising. “Freedom of movement becomes limited, and over a period of time the use of restraints may result in deconditioning and muscle atrophy” (Falls in the Nursing Home, Ann Intern Med 1994 Sep 15; 121(6):442-51).Likewise an elderly person should not be given medication in a means to restrain them, unless these medications are needed to treat symptoms.

Medicating an elderly person in a way that is of benefit staff or careers is physical abuse, for example giving them extra medication to make them sleep longer or to discipline them. Likewise withholding medication that is prescribed to them, for example not letting them have pain relieve medication when they are in a lot of pain, is also elder abuse, this can come under both physical abuse and neglect. The prescription or administering of medication that is not licensed for the purpose used, often described as the ‘soft cosh’ because of the impact that it can have. ” (elderabuse.

org. uk, 08/03/12) There can be many signs of physical abuse, however these can sometimes be covered by the abuser or victim and any injuries that go unexplained should be investigated fully.These may also be called indicators, there can be physical signs or indicators, such as bruises or behavioral indicators such as the victim changing in the way they act or interact with other people, especially in the way that the victim and abuser are towards one another.

Signs should not be taken as conclusive proof and instead patterns or someone with many signs may be more of an indicator. Sometimes signs of physical elder abuse may go on noticed, “They may appear to be symptoms of dementia or signs of the elderly person’s frailty – or caregivers may explain them in that way. and it is true that some signs and symptoms are similar as those of mental deterioration; however this doesn’t mean that they should be ignored. Some signs that someone has physically abusing an elderly person can be malnourishment or dehydration without any other ill related causes.

Also prove of medication that has been over or under dosed, been given inappropriately or not been given at all.There may be laboratory evidence of this, or there may be a report of a drug overdose or care workers may say that the service user failed to take their medication as they refused it, this may happen on an often occurrence, and although the service user may be doing this if they seem to take it fine with other service user’s that it may be a sign that that particular care worker may be withholding the prescribed drugs. Another sign that this is happening is that there may be more prescribed drugs remaining than there should be even though the care worker hasn’t said the service user refused to take them.These signs sometimes come under medication abuse which “may include withholding medication, over-medicating or not complying with prescriptions refills. ” (edmontonpolice. ca/communitypolicing/familyprotection/elderabuse.
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aspx, 08/03/12) Physical signs such as bruises and scars can also be a sign of physical abuse; however this may be from an accident. This can especially be a sign if they seem to be on two sides of the body in a symmetrical way or if they appear in regular patterns or clusters in areas such as the groin or neck.Although the elderly are usually fragile, broken bones, sprains and fractures can also be a sign of physical abuse.

Any other signs of physical abuse can include things such as cuts, open wounds, black eyes, welts and any other injuries at any stage of healing or that haven’t been treated properly. Burns can also be a sign of physical abuse, these are most commonly around the palms, soles or buttocks, but can be in any other place, they may appear as cigarette burns or larger burns.Signs of being restrained can also be a sign of physical abuse, such as rope marks on the wrists, restraint is “any manual method, physical or mechanical device, or equipment that immobilizes or reduces the ability of the person to move his or her arms, legs, body or head freely (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Effective 1-1-08) this can include medicine used to restrain people. Physical restraint can be used in care settings, however this needs to be at a last resort and only if someone or the person themselves is going to come to harm if the restraint isn’t used.Even with expectable restraints there is a lot of controversy as they are believed to be unnecessary and sometimes cause further problems of distress in the service user.

In most cases good care workers try and find alternatives and they may first of all discuss the use of restraint with the service user or an advocate. In the UK it is unlawful to use restraining belts, cuffs and vests that are designed to keep the service user restrained to a bed or chair; however in other countries this may be accepted.Broken frames or eyeglasses can also be a sign of physical abuse as they may have become broken due to physical abuse; however they could have broken for other reasons. Poor skin hygiene or conditions lost of weight and a solid bed or clothing can also be signs, as well as being in pain. There may also be a change in the service users behavior, for example they may become withdrawn and act differently, this is even often the case for service users that are less able to communicate their feelings, it may still be shown that they have a change in their behavior.They may act in a distressed, anxious way and become angry and upset, or becoming more angry then usual, for example they may shout and/or cry. They may tell someone that they have been a subject to abuse or complain via written or verbal communications.

If a service user does do this then it should be taken seriously, the steps on what to do if this does happen are detailed later on. Unaccountable injuries and/ or “the refusal of the caretaker to allow visitors to see the elder alone” elder-abuse-(information. om, 09/03/12) can also be a sign of physical abuse as the care giver may not want others to see the proof or may not want the victim to tell others. The victim may also wince away when someone goes to touch them as they may think they are going to get harmed so they become extra fearful. Another type of abuse is verbal abuse, this can take on many forms and is usually linked to emotional abuse due to the way it can make people feel about their self’s. Such as critizing, degrading, insulting, calling names, threatening, screaming, and making people feel bad about themselves by belittling them.

This can also include racial, sexist and ageist comments. Verbal abuse usually involves the abuser judging the victim and the abuser may put the victim down even for something the victim is proud of doing. This can make the victim feel down about their self’s and lower their self-esteem and confidence. They may stop doing an activity they enjoy because of what an abuser has said. “Disparaging comments disguised as jokes and withholding communication are also examples of verbal abuse” (troubledwith.

om, 09/03/12), this type of abuse can lead to a service user feeling worthless, like they deserve it, especially if the abuser is using degrading comments. It can also lead the victim to believe it is true, they may feel it is their fault why they are being treated that way. They may feel they are a burden and are causing stress towards their care givers and that they deserve to be spoken to in that way. However that is not true and this can be also counted as emotional abuse. They may believe as there are no visual scars it can’t count as abuse, but this is also untrue.Abusers may also verbally harass an elder to gain financially; they may use their account details, steal money or even partake in identity theft. This can also come under financial abuse but sometimes verbal abuse is included to belittle the victim or confuse them.

“The abuser might tell the elder that he’s won a prize and that he must pay in order to claim, create a phony charity for the senior to donate money to or engage in investment fraud” (ehow. com, 09/03/12). Verbal abuse does not always have to be done via oral communication, it can also be done by written communication or the use of hand signals.For example by writing threatening letters or using hand gestures to offend someone.

Verbal abuse is usually a pattern of behavior from the abuser and it can interfere with the victim’s positive emotional development and can be detrimental to their physical state, allowing the abuser to take and feel as though they are in control. One of the problems with verbal abuse is that sometimes the abuser may not realize they are doing it, sometimes the victim may laugh along, when really they are hurt. This is why people should be careful about what they say and how they say it.In some cases jokes may be all right if the people have formed a good relationship and know where each other stand and have spoken properly about it.

However friendly jokes are best avoided in care settings. Care workers can also verbally abuse someone by talking as if they are not there, for example yelling down the corridor ‘she’s wet the bed again’ As this is inappropriate and doesn’t provide the service user with dignity of care. There can be many signs that an elder person is or has been verbally abused and these signs are usually similar to emotional abuse. They may behave differently and be upset, agitated or angry.They may become withdrawn and non-communicative and want to be isolated from family and friends. They may have a change in behavior or unusual behavior such as biting, rocking and sucking.

They may become hostile to others and be insulting and threatening family and friends. In most situations verbal abuse comes along with emotional abuse, however other types of abuse are very likely to affect an elder emotionally and psychologically.A definition of both verbal and emotional abuse can be “discrimination on the basis of age, insults and hurtful words, denigration, intimidation, false accusations, psychological pain and distress. (ageuk. org.

uk, 10/03/12) Another form of abuse is emotional abuse; the main means of this is for the abuser to gain control. Emotional abuse can be anything from subtle words to being physically abusive and dominating. Emotional abuse can also include manipulation. The abuser can be “insulting, threatening, devaluing, mocking, controlling, critical, and undermining of self-esteem and worth” (everydayhealth. com, 10/03/11). The abuser may also withhold things from the victim, for example they may not allow them to see their family or friends.Emotional abuse can occur in many ways and this is why it can be hard to tell if someone is being emotionally abused. Even the abuser may not realize that they are causing someone else emotional pain.

Sometimes the abuser may also brainwash the victim to thinking it is their fault or/and that the carer does really care for them they are just taking things out of proportion. This can lead to the victim to not saying anything as they may not realize that they are being emotionally abused as they have been tricked into accepting it.This may cause the victim to become ashamed, especially if the abuser repeats the same hurtful words many times. The victim begins to believe it and they may feel that they are a burden and their career is just stressed. “Their abuser has often isolated them through intimidation. They are reluctant to trust others because they fear angering their abuser” (David Sack, MD, the CEO of Promises Treatment Centers in California and the author of many journal articles on depression).

As said under verbal abuse (which is closely linked to emotional abuse) the abuser may ridicule or humiliate the victim, calling them hurtful names.This can make a service user to become annoyed and they may show this through a change of behavior, such as becoming more angry and hostile towards others. So this can be a sign of emotional abuse.

Emotional abuse is increasing towards the elderly and this may be due to people living to older ages which is causing the amount of dependent elderly to go up so the prevalence of emotional abuse towards the elderly is also rising. Emotional (or psychological) abuse towards the elderly causes them emotional pain and distress, it may make them feel inadequate and lead to them having less confidence and a low-self esteem.This can cause them to blame them self for things, for example they may say ‘I’m a nuisance aren’t I’. A career can also cause emotional abuse in other non-verbal ways, for example they may ignore them or deliberately isolate them from activities or seeing their friends or families, this is one sign of emotional abuse can be a victim suddenly withdrawing from seeing friends r family without warning. They may also terrorize or menace the elderly person. Although emotional abuse may be difficult to spot there may be some signs pointing towards it.Especially if a career is seen being verbally abusive towards an elderly person. The victim may also seem frightened of the specific abuser, they may try to over please them in fear of causing them to become angry.

“As a result, actions and access are controlled, and the person often seems to have no freedom or capacity to make independent decisions. ” (sharecare. com, 10/03/12) The victim may think before they act as they begin judging everything they do based on the way the abuser is going to react. This may cause depression or sleeping/ eating disorders, which can be another sign to look out for.Another way elderly people may be abused is sexually. This is sexual contact with an elderly person without their consent, it can also include acts such as making an elderly person watch sex acts or look at pornographic material, also considered as elder sexual abuse is forcing an elderly person to undress.

Sexual abuse on an elderly may be planned, for example a abuser may try and get a job in a residential home as they have certain service users. Or it may be in a result of opportunity that the care worker sees.In some cases sexual abuse may have been carried on from an earlier age into old age.

“There are also reported cases of older woman from minority communities being targeted because of their ethnic origins” (minorityrights. org, 10/03/12). Although sexual abuse is a crime it is often denied by the elderly and they often chose to suffer in silence, they begin to feel guilty like it is their fault, when it is not. The trouble with this is not only the fact that the abuser goes on to abuse many other people and potentially ruining lives or causing people distress and depression.

But also the opportunity for prove that it happened may be missed. Sometimes people that have been told by others that they have been sexually abuse may react by offering that they can have a bath and to wash their clothes, although this is meant to be a kind gesture it means that forensic evidence can be lost. So it is important that this doesn’t happen and instead the police are rang straight away as sexual abuse is a crime no matter what age the victim is.Often an older person will tell what is wrong, even if they are confused. Even with dementia people can often make their feelings known as long as time is taken to listen, observe and take notice” (apa. org 10/03/12) Some signs of sexual abuse can include, genital or breast area having bruises around them, unexplained sexually transmitted infections or venereal disease/ genital infections, bleeding from the vagina or anus that can’t be explained. The victim having a sudden unusual difficulty in walking or standing can be another sign of sexual abuse.

Underclothing that is stained, torn or has blood on it can also be a sign of sexual abuse.Or if an elderly person says they have been abused sexually or raped. In this case the accusation should be taken seriously, even for confused service users and a protocol should be fallowed. Other signs of sexual abuse can include a change in the victim’s behavior; they may feel worthless and embarrassed. They may become angry and hostile and may not want to be left alone with the abuser. The act of sexual abuse may cause them to become fearful, shameful and their self- esteem will be lowered.

They may have extra physical illness or post traumatic stress syndrome, along with many more symptoms such as “insomnia, nightmares, fear of the dark, fear of being alone, and agoraphobia” (familymattersuk. org, 10/03/12). They may start to have eating, drug or alcohol problems and may begin to wear lots of layers of clothes. As sexual abuse is not often reported by elderly people it is important to look out for cues and do the right thing when they do report it. Another type of abuse can be financial abuse, or financial exploitation.This is using resources of an elder inappropriately without permission for somebody else’s benefit, including for the abusers own benefit. This can also come under emotional abuse.

This kind of abuse can range from embezzlement to a misuse of an elderly person’s money and can include; “fraud, taking money under false pretenses, forgery, forced property transfers, purchasing expensive items with the older person’s money without the older person’s knowledge or permission, or denying the older person access to his or her own funds or home” (apa. org, 10/03/12).Sometimes power of attorney, or the use of legal guardianship is used to financially abuse an elder. As well as relatives, friends and families financially abusing an elder, companies set out to scam older people are also included.

Such as mortgage companies, financial managers or sales people. Theft us quite a big problem towards the elderly as people around them enrich their self’s at the elderly person’s dispense by deceiving them “On occasions even banks and solicitors are found to have assisted in the misuse of Enduring Powers of Attorney. (lawsociety. org. uk. 10/03/12) There are many signs of financial abuse and sometimes these are quite clear for example a person may admit they are trying to get a family members money as it will be their inherence anyway, or maybe they may argue with the victim about money and saving some for when they pass away. Other signs can include signatures that look fake which are on financial documents such as cheques; this can especially be a sign if the victim is unable to write. Also changes in the victims will can be a sign of financial abuse.

There may be additional names added to their bank accounts or sudden changes or unexplained withdrawals from the bank account, especially if these are for large sums of money. Another sign of financial abuse can be bills that are going unpaid, such as overdue rent if someone else is meant to be helping with this, or if they lack in things such as clothing, a TV, personal hygiene items and other amenities that they should be able to afford.Another sign can be “The sudden appearance of previously uninvolved relatives claiming their rights to an older person’s affairs or possessions” (elder-abuse-spotlight. logspot. com, 10/03/12) and/or an unusual concern by abuser that too much money is being spent on the care of an older person. Family members or other people suddenly receiving a transfer of assets can also be a indication of financial abuse, as well as disappearance in possessions or funds. A sign that an older person is being financially abused by a career can be that the elderly person is deliberately isolated from their friends and family so that control can be gained by the career.

Another sign can be the older person saying that they are being abused financially, they may not say it as straightforward as this but for example they may complain of repeated phone calls from people moaning about money. Although victims of elderly abuse are not to blame there are many ways of minimizing abuse but one if the first points is for everyone to work in partnerships with individuals and key people to ensure that elder abuse is made aware of and that everyone involved with the care of an older person is educated about elder abuse and the fact that it is not acceptable.Giving older people plenty of support from friends and family as well as making family knowledgeable about respite care so they can have a guilt free break. Combating isolation in older people and allowing them to meet plenty of people gives more of a chance that abuse can be recognized, and isolation can actually be an indication of abuse. “Everyone involved in the care and support of older people must be aware of the existence of elder abuse and be able to provide advice on how to deal with the situation” (ageing.

xfordjournals. org, 10/02/12) Other professionals such as doctors must also be alert to elder abuse and how to identify it. To minimize the impact on older people all professions should be in strong support of multi-agency working, both management and prevention of elderly abuse. Another way an elderly person can help minimize abuse to their selfs is by refusing anyone to have their bank details, they should also set boundaries and not tolerate any one who over steps these.They should also speak up if they are unhappy with the way that they are being treated, they should do everything in their power to be treated right and fairly.

Developing positive, trusting and sensitive relationships with service users to aid communication can also help minimize elder abuse. This will not only help the service user feel more safe and secure so they can open up and explain any abuse that has happened but it will also help the service user to see the differences between a good care worker that doesn’t abuse them to the person who is the abuser.This will help the service user see that it is wrong and that it isn’t their fault. To build an effective relationship with an older service user a care worker will need to build on the trust they have with them, this can come in the form of respecting the service user, their home and their belongings. For example when cleaning a room a care worker may ask the service user where they want things to go, and if they need to go in a draw they might ask before hand just in case the service user doesn’t want them to.This will give the service user dignity as well as privacy.
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This will help build an effective relationship and build the service user trust. It can also help if a care worker knows their own prejudices and how they can effect the way they behave towards a service user, this means that they need to be non-judgmental and getting to know the service user for who they are “Good quality of care requires competently delivered services that meet the client’s needs” (bacp. co.

uk/ethical_framework/good_standard. hp, 10/03/12). If the care worker understands this and knows the limit of their role then it can help minimize abuse as they are less likely to abuse a service user (even by accident) as they understand what they are and are not meant to do.

If a care worker applies the care values in what they do then they are more able to meet the service user’s needs, rights and preferences. This will help the service user feel more worthy which in turn builds up their confidence and self esteem.This can help them feel like they are able to be more independent and they will be more able to say no to abuse and speak up for themselves. This will help minimize abuse as the service user will be more confident and will be less venerable to abusers, it will also help them speak out if they are getting abused as they will have the confidence to do so and realize that it is not their fault and they don’t deserve to be treated in that way.As one of the seven principles of the care value base is to “Acknowledging people’s personal beliefs and identities” (en. wikipedia. org, 10/03/12) these are included in legal and organizational requirements that need to be met which can also help with minimizing abuse.

A care worker has a duty of care which means that they need to work with a person-centered approach where the individual is at the center of their work. Service users should know about their treatment and what it involves so they are able to make informed decisions.Although a service user doesn’t have a right to demand a certain treatment and may not necessarily be able to have a complete choice they still are “able to make informed choices about the most suitable treatments for themselves” (preventelderabuse. org, 10/03/12). Also providing the service user with privacy and dignity can help minimize abuse as they are able to see the correct way in which they should be treated. There are certain actions to be taken when abuse is recognized or reported and systems and procedures that should be followed in order to safeguard older service users from abuse.

It should be reconised by both service users and care workers that care workers cannot keep a promise that they wont pass on information about abuse. This reason for this is to protect the service user as well as others. However it should be known that this type of information will only be passed on to those who need to know it and it will remain confidential to just these people. Here is a flow chart that shows what usually happens if abuse is suspected in an elderly person.

The Terrorism Act 2000

Question

Tommy is friends with James and Bill, who are members of an action group called ‘Down with Capitalism’. He speaks to them often as they are old school-friends and they often meet up for drinks in town or at each other’s houses for meals.

James and Bill, as part of their campaign for ‘Down with Capitalism’, break into the National Bank of Britannia and place a bomb which detonates an hour later. James and Bill are caught and face conviction for terrorism related offences. After investigation, the police discover Tommy’s links with James and Bill and believe he is connected directly with ‘Down with Capitalism’.

The police have covertly been carrying out surveillance at James’ house as they are aware of ‘Down with Capitalism’ and the group’s agenda. They have a recording from a bugging device which the police believe to be Tommy’s voice actively discussing the group’s future plans.

PC Michelin, who is leading the investigation, calls in Joyce, a phoneticist, who compares the telephone conversation with recordings of Tommy’s voice. Joyce concludes that the recordings are of the same person. Savill has developed a system of comparing voices by meticulous listening to recordings of the suspect and the recordings of the event itself. His article on the technique in the journal, International and Comparative Phonetics, was criticised by other phoneticists for its overly subjective approach and its lack of methodological rigour. The technique has not become generally accepted in the field of phonetics.

When arrested, Tommy is taken to the police station where he is placed in the cells prior to interview. Whilst in the cells, PC Goodyear constantly tells him that he might as well admit that he was involved with ‘Down with Capitalism’ because they will get him to confess anyway. He tells Tommy that if he confesses, they would release him on bail but if he doesn’t confess they will apply for him to be remanded in custody pending the case going to court. Tommy is a single parent with two very young children. During interview, the officers are very aggressive and shout and scream in Tommy’s face in an attempt to get him to confess. He later says in his third interview that he is a member of ‘Down with Capitalism’ as he is desperate to get home to his children.
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The police charge him with being a member of a terrorist group contrary to s.11(1) of the Terrorism Act 2000.

Advise Tommy regarding the evidential issues that may arise

The Power of Music Custom Essay

People are now playing therapeutic music for patients in hospitals, hospices and other clinical settings to improve their healing. Music seems to be therapeutic to the human mind. Music can also provoke memories.

It can trigger things in our minds that we all have experienced as humans. Music’s power extends to the point where we don’t even have to hear a song, we just have to think of it. When this happens, memories of a particular event or time in our lives that possess or resemble some type of association can come flooding back (Science of People; Danielle M. Baker).

Through these scientific discoveries, we see yet another aspect of the power of music in the human mind. This power can be seen in the composition Forever Music by Mark Hayes and Susan Boersma. Historically and scientifically, it is evident that music has a power that is both unique and universal.

The language of Forever Music is written for the intended purpose of global unification through the power of music. The idea of producing a common ground amongst all people who can hear. The message; music represents life, peace, time, love, and the happy assembly of all people in the world regardless of one’s individual background. Each lyrical element in this piece is intended to allow all people of every culture to share a song. A song that carries meaning applicable to everyone who can hear.

Mark and Susan seem to have envisioned, as demonstrated by the text’s language and rhetoric, a peaceful and unified world that has the deepest appreciation for life and music. The audience for this text is timeless. “… where present, past, and future meet upon a narrow bridge of time.” This work is written for all people of all ages. It is designed to inform the world that each individual life is a song meant to be sung.

The study of this piece, Forever Music, can be broken down into many different segments. We will take time to dissect each phrase in the song with the hope of being able to fully understand the depths of its symbolism and how what it communicates relates to people of every age and from every culture around the world. We will contextualize the songs language though it’s lyrics, and we will also try to gain a better musical understanding for the way that this piece was composed.

We can just as easily dissect the musical element of Forever Music as the lyrical element. These two categories, individually, are imbedded with such meaning, emotion, and symbolism. These are things that we get to discover! There are many years of professional experience between this works creators, and because of this, their experiences enhance their ability, and this songs ability, to reach a timeless audience from every culture.
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Cave Painting The Oldest Humanity Story Custom Essay

One of greatest known art periods, the Paleolithic era, was around 32,000 to 11,000 years ago. Pieces of art from this time period can be placed into two categories; small, detailed figurines/objects, and cave art. The figurines were often carved from bone, stone, or clay. These were materials artists could easily get ahold of. These pieces of art were mostly found in Europe and Siberia. Unlike the portable pieces, cave art was discovered in northern spain as well as France. These often took the form of paintings, or engravings on the walls of caves or on rock like surfaces.

French Paleontologist Edouard Lartet was the first to discover Paleolithic art in the 1860’s. His first discovery was an embellished objects within the caves on Southern France. These discoveries were noted as ancient as they had many similarities to the figures found during the Stone Age. After the small discovery it became a must to find more. People began to dig in caves to look for certain objects, not giving thought to the art already noticeable on the walls.

It wasn’t until 1880 when the discovery of the Paleolithic paintings within the Spanish cave of Altamira were found and given great skepticism. In 1895, walls covered in engravings were discovered in La Mouthe, a cave in France. The lengths of time to discover these pieces of art was set back due to the debris that had originally blocked the entrance to the cave. In 1901, more engravings were found in the same region of France just in a difference cave, Font de Gaume.

It wasn’t until right after that that archaeologists stated that cave art has a true existence. A popular and well known cave, the Chauvet cave, was brought to light by Jean-Marie Chauvet in 1994. The cave is located in the Ardeche Valley in southeast France. This cave is home to many animal paintings that date back to 32,000 years, making them the oldest paintings to be discovered, yet.

It wasn’t that long ago that Paleolithic art was only found inside the cave. In 1981 archaeologists discovered multiple outdoor sites in spain, portugal and south africa. These sites were often found along rivers, on the side of large rocks, or on the entrances of caves. They’re expecting these paintings to be approximately 20,000 years old and were often engravings of human-like figures, horses, and wild cattle. Given the notable amount of repeated engravings/drawings scientists now think this type of artwork was common, despite the little that survived due to the erosion of wind and rain.

Art during this era was thought to either mean two things, figurative, meaning it translates animals and humans, or non figurative, meaning signs and symbols. Animals during this time could also be translated to more than one thing depending on period and region of its use. Art within caves would mostly show animals such as bison, horses or even deer. Fish and birds are also within the paintings and engravings but were usually used more for figurine art. Despite the use of them being different they have one thing in common, they’re all drawn using their profile, or from the side. Some animals are even imaginary, as in the unicorn translated from the cave in Lascaux, France.

Human bodys were not typically found in cave paintings but mostly in small portable statues. These figurines tended to be women yet their bodies often differed from what our social norm would be. For example the small female statues known as the Venus have larger than normal breasts, abdomen and hips. Statues that often represented woman had these over-sized aspects to them. They also didn’t have a face, no eyes or mouth. Making the focus be on their body and nothing else.

Materials used during the Paleolithic era were very broad. They used forms by simply changing the base of a material to give it a new meaning. Beads were also commonly made and used out of ivory. Figurines were made out of ivory or a soft stone, and some were made from clay. Art on cave walls was created using multiple techniques. Some images were created using the shape of the rock or stalagmites it is placed on. The shape would help put emphasis on certain points of the paintings.

On almost all wall sculptures there has been traces of a red pigment which tells scientists that they were painted. This red pigment is made of iron oxide which can be found in clays and ores. Black pigment was made out of manganese or charcoal. These materials were often only available in areas surrounding the cave. Painters often applied the paint with their fingers, giving them more control over the look they want. It was later discovered that some used animal hair brushes or small twigs were used to paint as well. Scientists have repeatedly found chunks of these pigments on cave floors believing they may have been used in pencil-like form.

Within cave art scientists also found paintings on the ceilings of the caves. Although some were too tall to even imagine painting on, others show holes in which were used to help support someone paint on the ceiling. Hearths were often used to shine light within the cave however in deep caves artists would need more of a portable light source. Archaeologists have only found a few known stone lamps, which are also known as torches. The debris of charcoal within the cave also proves that fires must have been lit to use as light.

Like I stated above on the ways painters applied the pigment was with their own hands, and eventually other tools were discovered. However to make special effects such as dots, figures or hand stencils, artists used a technique called “sprayed paint.” The artists would use a mixture of powder pigment, water, and a type of oil and use a straw to spit it onto the walls. This is a great way to help get different textures. Given that the size of cave paintings varies, this technique would have been of great help. For example some of the largest are over 2 m in length, and drawings of bulls at Lascaux measure as long as 5.5 m.
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Introduction to Art Custom Essay

Many people think that Arts sole purpose is to entertain the audience. However, art is more than just entertainment. This topic is very important as Art can have many purposes instead of one. Besides entertainment, there are other purposes such as spreading messages and therapy.

Entertainment is something that holds the attention and enthusiasm of a crowd of people or gives joy. Entertainment can take numerous ways, especially those of a progressive response from the viewer. It is not something to be minded one’s business, however, to be shared, seen, and experienced by others. Entertainment engages the watcher, by holding their attention, drawing in them with the piece, inciting an enthusiastic reaction. (Merrifield,2014) For example, talent show competition like Britain Got Talent, World of Dance competition, etc. These talent show competitions often bring the audience’s laughter, happiness and many other emotions throughout the show.

Art is the expression or software of human innovative ability and imagination, usually in a visible form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated especially for their beauty or emotional power. Art can be open to interpretation, the artist may need every person to frame their own assessments on a piece, making it individual to every individual who reviews it. Anyway, on different occasions, the craftsman might need to convey a reasonable message; regardless of whether it be ideological, political, religious, or something else. Through art, individuals can express their distaste with the present state of world affairs, affect the world to take action, celebrate the individuals who have survived or accomplished extraordinary things, or show the world the true colours of the individuals who have done awful things.

Photography, specifically, is known for this – photographers flying out to creating nations to demonstrate the remainder of the world the genuine horrors of poverty and sickness, catching moments in history to be remembered forever, or to express feelings now and again when the world was not exactly certain how to indicate what it’s inclination, similarly as with the well-known photo of the ‘Falling Man’ from the 9/11 assaults. Art enables everybody to have their say, and doesn’t require individuals to be extraordinary speakers or intelligent people, they can utilize any number of materials to demonstrate the world that they have something imperative to state. What’s more, it can motivate individuals, make them think or drive them energetically, it ought to never be belittled how amazing a tool art is for inciting both idea and action. It is open to everybody and can be delivered by anybody, it is a general language.

Art can also be a form of therapy. Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the creative process of making art to improve a person’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being. This allows the person to express oneself emotions artistically, whether you are an artist. Art therapy can be used to calm one’s inner-self in a way that may provide the individual with a deeper understanding of him or herself. For example, drawing, colouring, painting, doodling, and sculpting are all examples of the art form that can be used as a means of therapy. As well as helping the person by the survey, this kind of craftsmanship individuals can investigate the minds of the ‘outsiders’, see them for once as individuals being extraordinary, however yet the equivalent.

Therefore, Art does not have a​ sole​ purpose but rather has ​multiple​ purposes. Art is a form of entertainment, it carries happiness to people in general and the specialists themselves. Art can be a form of therapy. It is a form of expression which enables people to convey to a larger audience than a basic conversation can. Be that as it may, Art enables individuals to express what words often can’t, and humanity gains a greater understanding of the many people within itself for it. Also, by being a form of therapy, it would allow people to feel a sense of calm and satisfied. This would affect people positively. Art likewise spread messages. Because Art can have many purposes, hence, I feel that spreading messages is one of the most important purposes of the arts. By spreading messages, people around would be able to understand what the artist is trying to covey and how it would affect anyone positively or negatively.
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Reasons as to why Music is Important

Music is not just a source of entertainment but has an amazing power to heal. Music therapy has been declared as a therapy that can work wonders on people suffering from different kinds of mental as well as physical ailments. Many institutes run special music therapy sessions to help people get rid of conditions such as depression, anxiety, cardiovascular problem and insomnia. Music also forms a part of many other medical treatments.

Music therapy is broadly divided into two categories. These are as follows:

  1. Active Music Therapy

In active music therapy, the participants (those receiving the therapy) create music using different musical instruments. They also write lyrics and sing songs. This includes working on new compositions or remixing the earlier ones. The idea is to shift the patient’s focus from his physical or mental condition to something positive. Creating music can be therapeutic. Since these are group activities, they help participants connect with each other and make new friends. This also helps in the healing process.

  1. Receptive Music Therapy

During this type of music therapy session, the therapist plays musical instruments and sings songs. The participants sit quietly and listen to him. Many times soft healing music is played on a recorder and the participants enjoy it. This is often followed by a discussion between the participants and the therapist.

Both types of music therapy offer a calming effect on the patients. They work on different levels and help in healing various medical conditions. Most music therapists offer a mix of both these therapies to heal their patients. Many music therapy sessions also include dancing, clapping and chanting loudly. Clapping and Chanting fill the atmosphere with positive energy and render a soothing effect.

The effects of music therapy have been astonishing. Research shows that patients who received music therapy as a part of their overall medical treatment recovered faster compared to those who only received other medication. It has largely been accepted that music can heal both physical and emotional pain.

More and more hospitals, clinics and rehabilitation centres have thus started incorporating music therapy as a part of many treatments.  They also recommend people to inculcate the practice in their routine life even after they recover. This is because it boosts health and offers better quality of life. A music therapist or coach can help in this direction.

These days, most of the physical as well as mental ailments stem from stress. Stress mostly occurs when a person fears about the upcoming events in his life or is unable to cope up with the bad experiences of the past. In today’s times, very few people are able to enjoy the moment they are living in. They continually fret about the future or regret their past.

Music helps in shifting the focus to the present moment. So, it helps in combating stress that arises from the fears that lie ahead and the guilt or resentment from the past events. The decrease in the stress level plays a vital part in the healing process. This is a great way to improve both mental and physical health.

Music therapy works for people of all age groups. It is an effective way to relax, combat stress and fight various illnesses. It is recommended for everyone whether he/she is suffering from some ailment or not.
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Importance of Music

Music is a great medium to connect better with oneself. It is also a fun way to connect with our friends and family and make new connections. Two people with similar taste in music connect instantly. Those who are fond of playing the same instrument or have flair in writing same kind of poetry also gel along really well.

Connecting with one’s inner self is an essential factor in leading a positive and wholesome life. The best way to go deep down and connect with oneself is through meditation. While many people try to meditate only few are able to do it successfully. Most people find it hard to sit in silence and dive deep inside. Their thoughts usually wander making it impossible to concentrate. Many people find this activity boring and tend to give up after few attempts. Music can make this process easier.

Music can calm the mind and help us focus better. There are many guided meditation audios and videos that can help you meditate with ease and develop a connection with your inner self.

Why do you think social gatherings have soft music being played in the background or a full blown DJ installed? Well, this is because music has the power to build a positive atmosphere and also connects people instantly. People often make new friends on the dance floor and also strengthen their bond with the existing ones.

Many songs make us feel nostalgic. This feeling of nostalgia binds us with our friends and family. Listening to such songs in their company is a great way to connect with them even if we meet them after a long time. Music helps in making several new memories too.

In Conclusion If you find it hard to meditate and establish a connection with your inner self or are trying hard to recreate that bond with your old friends then try music as a medium to further these aims.
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music and arts custom essay

Music can be the most important and powerful things of anyone life who loves to listen or play music and know its importance in their life. One who listen or play music never get fed up of any problems in the life. It helps in distressing and relaxing the mind as well as motivates to do something better in the life. Many people love to listen and play music at many occasions or events.
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Some of the people become used to of listening music in their all time such as in the office, home on the way, etc. It keeps away from all the problems of life and gives solutions. Now-a-days, there is a trend of playing slow music in the offices of big companies while employees are working in order to keep mind fresh, peaceful, concentrate, bring positive thoughts as well as increasing the performance of the employees.

I got my music loving habit in the generation from parents and grandparents because my father and grandfather were very fond of listening music. Slow music always run in my home from morning till night. I don’t know much about the musical compositions but I generally like to listen music whenever I travel or during my study time. On the weekend, we dance, listen music or play music with family at home or at picnic on any favorite place. Music touches my soul and spirit and makes me realize that I have no any problems in this world.

Music is very powerful and has ability to convey positive messages to all sorts of emotion without telling and asking anything to anyone. It is voiceless however tells everything and shares all the problems more than the human being. Music has inspiring and promoting nature which increases the concentration power of the human being by removing all the negative thoughts.

Music is the thing which helps us in re-memorizing our good memories of the past with our loved ones and dear ones. It has no limitations, drawbacks and guidelines; it only needs anyone to listen or play passionately with full devotion. When we listen music, it brings amazing feeling in the heart and mind which connects our spirit to the supernatural power of God. There is a very true saying about the music that “music imitates life and life imitates music”. Being inspired, I also started learning music and playing guitar and hope would be a good music player a day.

Critique of Quantitative Article (Maylone Collab 2010)

Attached an article(Maylone) that need to be critique. I also attached a format for this paper(paperoutline_skeleton). Examples from the book where reference as box in the paper requirement below is also attached.

Guidelines for Critique of Quantitative Article
For the quantitative critique follow box 5.2 in your text on pages 112 to 114 – some of the questions may not apply to the study – if it does not include that it is not applicable – when completing the critique – use level 1 headings to address the main sections of the critique, such as Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, etc. and level 2 to address each criterion under the main sections such as statement of the problem, hypothesis or research question etc. under Introduction. Under method you will use a level 2 heading for protection of human rights, research design, population and sample, etc. Using level 3 headings address each bulleted question(s) that is appropriate – this should not be a narrative form rather rewrite the question or provide a few brief words in a level 3 heading and then provide your answer. This approach will helps to prompt you so that you do not miss any content and also informs as to where you addressed the content.
Refer to the pages in the box for additional information from your text as well as review the guidelines provided below.
Guidelines
What is a summary? For the purpose of this assignment, a summary is a detailed yet concise and accurate description of the information in the article. When summarizing, consider the logic of the presentation of the information. Follow the order of information as the author(s) had a purpose in how the information is organized. Do not add information. After completing this assignment, you will be able to appraise work from the purpose throughout the paper to the findings and be sure the never be comfortable in doing this. Evidence-based practice requires a critical appraisal of all elements of a study. Without each part being sound the overall findings and implications are inaccurate and does not add to the body of knowledge.

Rules for Critique: Use Guide found in Box 5.2 starting on page 112 to 114. In last column of guide, you are directed to detailed critiquing guidelines in the chapters.
For additional help to critique research articles, read APA chapter 2 (how to write a report of a study) and chapter 28, p. 682-688 starting with Content of Research Reports.
Before summarizing each section, read in textbook about the purpose of each step and following the heading (like Problem Statement), state what is a problem statement according to Polit and Beck.
Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Read about problem statements in text, p. 82, and boxes 4.1, 4.2. Consider the following question: What is the purpose of a problem statement? Start the section by defining a problem statement. Then summarize the problem statement. For critique, did the author(s) achieve the purpose? Use critique criteria to frame your answer.

Research Purpose/Questions/Hypotheses.
Chapter 4 covers the research purpose, questions, and hypotheses. A research report may have all three, two, or one. Many authors use a research purpose or aim rather than a research question. Hypotheses are used for experimental designs. Consider the design when you critique. If there is no experiment, is a hypothesis appropriate? Not all quantitative studies test hypotheses. Some describe, explore, and explain, rather than predict. A hypothesis is a prediction.

Literature Review

The literature review should prepare the reader for the variables that will be included in the study. By presenting literature as a foundation for the study, the researcher justifies the approach to the study and supports the need to conduct the study. The questions in the guide and box 5.4, p. 122 all apply except for #7 in box 5.4.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework
Box 6.3, p. 145, covers the questions necessary to guide this critique. Pay close attention to the wording. When the question includes a phrase like “if there is an intervention” and your selected study does not have an intervention, write not applicable to note that you considered the question but it is not relevant to the study. The mention of theories and frameworks in the literature review may simply be used as informational in the same way that the reference to studies is used. Unless the authors specify that they are using a theoretical framework, and usually this is preceded by a heading, state that there is no framework. If there is none, use the information in the text regarding the purpose of a theoretical framework and in the critique address whether or not a lack of a framework is justified. Do not offer a framework – if one is not identified by the authors.

Method
Protection of Participants’ Rights
The critique should follow the guidelines in Box 7.3, page 170. Following the order of the questions helps to develop a logical critique. Box 7.1 lists potential benefits and risks for participants. Box 7.2 provides examples of questions for building ethics into a study design. In healthcare, HIPPA is the legislation that assures confidentiality to patients. What governmental authority is responsible to assure ethical conduct for research? What is the role of institutional review boards (IRBs)?

All studies should assure confidentiality. However, some studies collect data that could be very harmful to the subjects if disclosed. Yet the knowledge is very important. For example, how do pedophiles find children?
Note the difference between confidentiality and anonymity.
Minimally, studies should state IRB approval and informed consent. In addition consider: did they maximize good and minimize harm for the participants, privacy/confidentiality, note if vulnerable populations according to your text.

Research Design
Use questions Box 9.1, p. 230. Note that many questions starts with “if the study was an RCT”.if your study is correlation, write not applicable and note why.

Example of what might be in the summary: A descriptive correlation design was used. Participants filled out several questionnaires (described under data measurement) and also were interviewed.
Critique: This design is appropriate for the study in that there was no intervention and the purpose was to explore relationships; there was no intent to demonstrate causality. The design is described accurately and in detail. # 6, box 9.1 would be critical since this is a non-experimental design. Note that they ask is the design is retrospective? Other choices are concurrent, and prospective. Concurrent means that the data is collected in one time frame collecting data for the moment (How are you feeling today?). Prospective means that the collection starts now and continues into the future. For the heart failure study, the data is retrospective in the sense that the interview and questionnaires focus on the past rather than at the moment. Read about retrospective designs..how might memory lead to bias? The idea of “is this the best design?” for retrospective would depend on the problem being studied. In order to find out what led to someone being hospitalized, you would have to either look at the record or ask them. So sometimes there is no choice. However, if the study was on nurse-patient communication in the ICU, a concurrent study would be more accurate than retrospective where all you have to go on is what was recorded about communication in the patient’s record. If it is done concurrently, you could have video-taping, observation, etc. A prospective study might be to collect data about care from today until one month from now. The information is collected from the medical record but the data collectors are able to remind individuals (like posters in the nursing station) to remember to record information on a specific topic. If retrospective, the data may be missing even though the care occurred.

Question number seven (longitudinal) means that data is collected over a long time. If satisfaction data is collected monthly for twelve months, this is longitudinal. Measuring the outcome in an experimental study twice (once at end of the study and 30 days later) would not be considered longitudinal. The risk study would have benefitted by being designed as a longitudinal study. Longitudinal designs can be built into both experimental and non-experimental research; usually they are non-experimental.

Question # 9 refers only to experimental designs.

When a question is asked, do not assume that it applies to your study. Also, read what it means. Reading about the advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, concurrent, and prospective studies will allow you to consider what type of study you have AND if the authors could have strengthened the study by conducting it prospectively rather than retrospectively. Some data CANNOT be collected except for one wayso it is not accurate to state that they should have collected it prospectively, if it is not possible. Some studies that examine causality can only use correlation (not experiments) because the independent variable cannot be manipulated (like the age of people or gender, you can’t assign it) or should not (it is unethical to assign people to a smoking group and others to not smoking). In correlation, you can look at health outcomes for smokers versus non-smokers.

So basically, for design: Did the researchers use the best design possible to answer the question?

If intervention, how well described? Does it have construct validity?

Population and Sample
Use Box 12.1, p. 289. Was the population identified? Was the sampling plan clear and is it the best (considering feasibility) to obtain a representative sample? Were inclusion criteria clear and did they follow them? Were there any exclusion criteria and, if so, were these justified by the author(s)? Was the procedure to obtain the sample adequately described? Was the sample adequately described (how many total, age, gender etc.)? You can also describe the sample under findings.since the description of the sample is data and critique that information there.

Data Collection and Measurement
Box 13.3 and 13.4 p. 323 and Box 14.1, p. 347. Between the three boxes, there are plenty of questions to guide the critique. What is important to remember is that you have to select the questions carefully. For example, question #7 in Box 13.3 asks if data collectors were carefully selected for appropriate traits. Unless you know what this means (from reading the text), you may not understand the question. If the only data collectors are the researchers, this question becomes irrelevant. For some studies where surveys are done in multiple sites, individuals are hired to do the data collection. Traits include being of the same race as those being surveyed and not only pleasant, friendly, safe appearance. Researchers use the best method to assure cooperation. This is not equal opportunity hiring.

The ultimate question is whether the data collected represents the truth or error (bias). The quality of the instruments (validity, reliability, precision, sensitivity etc.) and the quality of the data collection procedures contribute to internal validity.

Strategies to Assure Internal Validity
Use Box 10.1, p. 254. Basically, this section is not a summary but a critique as to whether or not the researcher(s) used adequate strategies to assure internal validity. It touches upon all other sections in the design of the study. When inferential tests are used (tests yielding probability statistics) a power analysis should be done to assure that the sample size is adequate to prevent a Type II error. For experiments, increasing the effect size (making sure that the intervention is strong enough to produce an effect) is a strategy to assure power and therefore affect internal validity.
Again, pay attention to the questions. Some only apply to intervention studies (experiments). Selection biases affect all studies. The characteristics of the sample affect external validity but the way in which the sample is selected affects self-selection biases which affect internal validity.
If the researchers intend to demonstrate causality, were threats to internal validity controlled by the design? In correlation designs where researchers do intend to demonstrate causality, how did the authors address plausible alternative explanations? This can be done by a logical explanation or by controlling via statistical procedures.
Validity of a study is affected by the validity and reliability of instruments and any bias contributed by the researchers when collecting data.
Results
Data Analysis
The questions in the critique guide and box 16.1 and 17.1 (p. 400, p. 429) both should be used. The research question (aim/purpose) identifies the major relationships that should be analyzed in a study. Usually the data analysis plan will include only those statistical procedures planned at the beginning of the study.

Additional statistical procedures are done in order to follow-up on interesting/unexpected findings or to control for variables. For the appropriate statistical procedure, this refers to mathematical level: nominal, ordinal, etc. for example, a t-test requires one nominal and one interval/ratio variable. If there is a single item used (instead of a summed score) this is ordinal. A t-test is not appropriate. Pearson Correlation requires variables at the interval or ratio level. Again, single items on a questionnaire (scored from strongly agree to strongly disagree or words to that effect) can never be higher than ordinal. Interestingly, multiple regression allows for the independent variables to be at any level though the dependent variable must be interval or ratio.

As for the most powerful analytic method, unless the author describes why a test was selected, at this point you would not likely know this. For an example of authors who describe this, check out appendix H, p. 286. On page 301, there is a critique of the data analysis. The authors presented a less powerful analytic method in order to use change scores so readers could easily see the difference between groups. However, they used a more powerful test first to be sure that the relationship was present as well. They explained this in great detail. If there is no explanation, you will not know unless you checked with someone with expertise in statistics. Were Type I and Type II errors minimized? This is all about control and minimizing error. Excellent tools that measure concepts precisely minimize Type II errors. Type I errors are minimized by controlling for alternative explanations.the relationship is due to the independent variable (intervention in an experimental design or “causative” variables in correlation). Minimizing selection bias is another way to minimize Type I errors. If the authors did a power analysis, they were attempting to decrease Type II errors.

Basically, intent-to-treat designs are considered the gold standard for randomized trials. Basically, this deals with the issue of attrition. In most experimental designs, if someone drops out, their data is ignored. The sample decreases in size and researchers attempt to explain away the biases that may occur due to attrition. Each person lost affects the benefits of randomization. Intent-to-treat designs keep all original participants and through a complex statistical procedure create “imputed” data for those individuals. In other words, they make the data up based on the probability of what the data would have been. This is considered preferable because in real life, there will always people who don’t finish the treatment. This way the results will look more like what you can expect in terms of effect if you were to do it in real life.
Missing values is when some participants left some questions unanswered. The researchers may describe how they handled missing values. So long as there is minimal missing data, the authors may replace the missing answer with the mean for the group. In data in which more than min. amounts of information a code is entered to identify that the subject did not address the question. For that analysis, the participant is dropped from the analysis. If you ever see a table where the n (number of subjects) changes from variable to variable, this means that some have been dropped for missing info. From box 16.1. For question 5 in box 16.1 If the study used a risk index, include it and if not note it is not applicable ( i.e. false positives, versus false negatives). From Box 17.1, p. 429, address each question – if one is not applicable note this in your critique.
Findings
From Box 5.2, Basically, did the authors present the major findings for the study? These are the findings that reflect the purpose of the study. Did they use tables to help you understand the description in the text of the article. Did they make it clear if they did additional analyses?
Regarding the question about meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is when fairly complex statistics are used to analyze the results of many studies based solely on the findings. In other words, what is entered into the formula are the findings from many studies found via literature review. There is no access to the original data.
The findings should be clear and interesting to read. There should be clear organization so you can follow. If they provide too much information without providing some explanation or reminder as to how it fits (the model, for example), it can be overwhelming and confusing. You want to “have a sense for the whole” picture – did the findings help the reader to achieve this?
Interpretation of Findings
The major challenge in this section will be to clearly separate interpretation from implications and recommendations. Interpretation means that the authors discuss their findings in light of the theory/model used (if there is one) AND prior findings. Most often, the articles used in the literature review reappear. However, it is also common to bring in new literature. Interpretation is what do the findings mean? This is clearest when the findings are not what was expected. The authors then attempt to explain why. Perhaps a faulty instrument, did not apply to the age group, intervention not strong enough etc. The questions in the basic guide and the boxes are pretty self-evident. Part of interpretation is identifying the limitations of the study. If the expected relationship(s) is not significant, they may state that this is likely due to the small sample size. The sample size is a limitation. Limitations are also related to external validity. The findings (even if strong) can only be generalized to individuals similar to those in the study. So your critique should focus on whether or not the authors adequately explained the findings.both expected and not expected. Did they identify problems with the study? Box 19.1 includes both interpretation and implications/recommendations (p. 482). The last question under interpretation can either be placed in interpretation of implications/recommendations. This is related to external validity.
Did the researchers accurately identified the limitations and provided implications and recommendations within those constraints.

Implications and Recommendations
Implications are logical deductions from the interpretation of findings: If this, then that. For example in a study that explores women’s experiences of infertility and the findings note that women report feeling hollow and empty and that people are judgmental an sensitive to their feelings re: children. The authors can state that based on these findings, health professionals are challenged to review their attitudes about patients. They are not recommending this, they are pointing out that if this is true, then this should be considered. Recommendations are much stronger statements. Recommendations can be for practice, education, or research. Usually there are at least recommendations for research. If the authors have a specific section called implications/recommendations, it makes your work easier. However, implications threaded through interpretation. You don’t have to pick them all out. You could state that though there is a section for implications, there were others interspersed in the interpretation that were not brought up in the final section. For example, .
The strongest criticism is if the authors state implications and recommendations not warranted by the findings. Consider if the findings are very weak in the study though the literature review led to expectations that the intervention would have a much more powerful effect. The authors then make recommendations based on the strength of the literature review and make practice recommendations in spite of the weak findings of their study – this is not sound. It is important that the implications flow from the findings which flows from the study design – weaknesses or lack of sound approaches in design or validity will impact the quality of the overall study.
Global Issues
Presentation
Researcher Credibility
Summary Assessment
References (use APA format)
Up to 15% of the grade can be deducted for APA and Grammar – for the purpose of this assignment provide a title page per APA guidelines (running head and page numbers and headers on each page) and use levels 1-3 headings. Each bulleted question or group of questons is worth 1 pt. and will be scored out of 49 and converted out of 100 and entered in the grade book. For example the introduction section is worth 12 of the 49 points.
Try and address each bulleted question concisely and directly referencing the study as needed. Be thorough but not excessively wordy, rather provide your answer and support it with material from your text book or the study when appropriate. Please do not submit 20 page narratives without the three levels of headings – they will be returned with a 48 request for re-submission – please aim for 12 pages maximum.
Please use the template for the quantitative assignment to submit and complete your work.

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customer intimacy or competitive edge is to use social networking.

Part 1: With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, one strategy to achieve customer intimacy or competitive edge is to use social networking.
A) Using the provided readings, briefly describe how companies can use and are using Twitter, Facebook and/or any other social networking websites for marketing purposes.
B) Give at least two examples of how you use social networking as a consumer (two different social networking website). Are you following your favorite company’s tweets, are you a friend of a company? If you are not using social networking as a consumer then go to Twitter.com and search for tweets of companies you are familiar with and describe how they use social networking.
? Does Twitter really fit into business and IT?
? Web 2.0 tools like Twitter, Facebook can foster growth in hard times
? 5 marketing tips for tackling Twitter
? How and Why to Launch a Business Presence on Twitter
? Comcast’s Twitter Man
Part 2: What are some dangers of using social networking for business purposes? Do you think companies should prohibit social networking of their employees or encourage it? Compare the ban of ESPN on Twitter and how Zappos.com employees use Twitter. Where do you stand on this issue? Should companies have social media policies?
? Twitter Ban Continues: ESPN Bans its Reporters From Sports-Related Social Media
? And more recently, ban on tweeting breaking news
? Zappo’s Shows How Social Media Is Done
? Should Your Company Have a Social Media Policy?
? A sample policy (pdf): ESPN Social Networking Policy
Part 3: How can companies calculate the ROI of social networking? Briefly describe it using the following readings.
? What’s your Twitter ROI? How to measure social media payoff
? Social Media ROI: Socialnomics – video
? Understanding the Social Media ROI Cycle
Requirements
? Address all the questions in the assignment.
? Part 1: Min 400 words and max 800 words (excluding references).
? Part 2/3: Min 250 words and max 600 words (excluding references) for each part.
? No need to cite the readings unless you have quotations

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