American History

Each question is over a topic/ subject since/ after 1877. Be sure to include as much information as possible to support your answer. Each answer should be 3 or 4 paragraphs in length. Be sure to cite your sources corresponding with the topic answered AFTER each question.

The questions are below:;

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1. Compare and contrast racial conflict in the South and the West. This article extends existing explanations of racial conflict by suggesting how legislation and court rulings instigate processes of legitimization and competitive exclusion, which in turn affect the likelihood of racial violence. We argue that federal legislation and court cases that reinforced the white-nonwhite racial boundary stigmatized nonwhites and prompted whites to attack nonwhites. However, legislation and court rulings that dismantled segregation and eradicated discrimination against racial minorities also instigated racial violence, as whites mobilized efforts to contain competition. A final argument suggests that when legislation successfully restrains competition from a specific population, collective violence against that group will diminish. Using data on collective violence against Asians and African Americans from the 76 largest cities in the U.S. from 1869 through 1924, we find support for these three claims. In particular, we find that while immigration and economic competition raise levels of racial conflict, state policies concerning race also increase the rate of racial violence significantly

2. Compare and contrast the Depression experiences of Mexican- and African-Americans. In your opinion, which group fared better? How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States

3. How did the war change the attitudes of women and minorities toward their status in American society? 

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4. Describe the Supreme Court?s decision in Roe v. Wade; then defend or criticize it

FINAL EVALUATION/INTERVIEW

Interview someone who works about the ethical issues they face on the job or see others face.  Ask about how those issues get resolved and if your interviewee believes they are resolved fairly.

Describe the interview on one or two pages, including some direct quotes.  On the next page, relate what you heard in your interview to something we covered in one of the chapters

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My interview subject was, Kristy, an accountant employed by Authentic Machining Inc. with 15-year experience. As an accountant, her job mostly involved finance and cashflows of the company. For the past few years, due to her seniority and performance, she was assigned to interview candidates for internship and entry level jobs. One ethical issue she faced was Nepotism.

Kristy had a cousin, Linda, who worked as a bank teller. Linda was tired of with her current employment and wanted to work as an accountant. Knowing Kristy’s position, Linda decided to asked Kristy for help. The subject was reluctant at first, but she decided to help Linda. The subject stated, “I was on the interview panel, so I could “pick” her resume providing that she passed the mandatory written exam.” Fortunately, Linda found a better opportunity in a private section and did not apply for Authentic Machining’s opening position

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Although Kristy did not help her cousin in the end, she believed that her decision did compromise her work ethic because favoritism was granted to her cousin. Kristy said, “I felt relief to find out she didn’t need my help, so I did not have to compromise my work ethic. I know it is not a right decision, but I just couldn’t say no.”  However, the subject also pointed out her reasoning for making that decision. The cousin was, indeed, an eligible candidate with suitable experience and degree. In addition, the selection process requires a written exam and panel interview. Kristy could not have hired her cousin without a good exam result and the panel’s approval.

Disclaimers: All names have been changed to maintain confidentiality.

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Final Exam Review Problems

Final Exam Review Problems

  1. The relationship between the amount of weight-loss drug given to a subject, x, and the amount of weight lost in pounds in a month, y, is of interest. Suppose that n = 5 subjects were randomly chosen from a large population and given 5 different dosages of the weight-loss drug. After a month, the weight of each subject was recorded and the data are below.
    a. Find the sample correlation coefficient, r, between x and y and use it to describe the relationship between the two variables. r = .876
    b. Find the best fitting line.
    Y = 1.3x+2.1
    c. Interpret the slope and the intercept. Slope = the change in weight-loss for every 1 unit change in dosage. Intercept = the weight-loss when the dosage is 0 (meaningless) d. What is the estimated amount of weight-loss if the dosage is 3.5? 6.65 lbs
    e. What is the estimated amount of weight-loss if the dosage is 15?
    ̂ y=6
  2. A recent census of employees at a large automotive company showed that 30% of the assembly line workers were extremely bored with their job. The management of the company arranged for a consulting firm to come and offer a program to reduce on-the-job boredom. After two months of the program, a random sample of 20 workers was selected to help evaluate its impact.
    a. If the program was not effective, how many workers in the sample would you expect to be bored with their job. 6 workers
    b. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that exactly 8 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job? .1144
    c. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that at least 2 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job? .9924
    d. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that more than 1 but less than 19 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job? .9924
    x 1 2 3 4 5 y 4 5 5 6 10
  3. The mayor of the city of Chicago was informed that household water usage was a normally distributed random variable with mean of 25 gallons and a standard deviation of 5 gallons per day.
    a. If a household were to be randomly selected, what would be the expected amount of water usage per day? 25 gallons
    b. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses more than 20 and less than 28 gallons per day? .5671
    c. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses more than 20 gallons per day? .8413
    d. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses less than 20 gallons per day? .1587
    e. The mayor wants to give a rebate to the lowest 20% of all water users. What should the gallons per day cut off be? 20.8 gallons
    d. Would it be statistically unusual for a household to use more than 42 gallons per day? Yes, .0003
  4. A company charges Mr. Smith $250 for a one-year $10,000 life insurance policy. Because Mr. Smith is a 21-year-old male, there is a 0.9985 probability that he will live through the next year.
    a. If Mr. Smith purchases the policy, what is the expected amount of money he or his family will gain or pay? Pays $234.63 or $235 b. What price should Mr. Smith pay for this policy if the insurance company’s goal is to break even instead of making a profit? $15.02 or $15
  5. One of the most important theorems in statistics is the Central Limit Theorem. For each of the following, indicate whether the statement is true or false.
    _ a. The value of the sample mean ̄ x is always the population mean μ, in any sample. F b. The sampling distribution of the sample mean is exactly normal, regardless of the sample size, when sampling from a normal population. T
    c. The sampling distribution of the sample mean is always exactly normal, when the sample size is large. F d. The Central Limit Theorem states, among other things, that the sampling distribution of the sample mean is approximately normal, when the sample size is large. T
    e. The Central Limit Theorem states, among other things, that the sampling distribution of the population mean is approximately normal, when the sample size is large. F _ f. The effect of increasing the sample size is to reduce the standard deviation of the sample mean. T
  6. The distribution of heights of adult males has a mean of 69 inches and a standard deviation of 4 inches. A random sample of 36 adult males is selected.
    a. Describe the shape, the mean and the standard deviation of the sample means. Approx. Normal. , 69, 0.67
    b. What is the probability that the average height of the sample will be between 67.4 and 70.5 in? .9796
    c. What is the probability that a randomly selected male will be between 67.4 and 70.5 inches? .3016
    d. Mr X is 71 inches tall. Is it statistically unusual for someone to be at least that tall? No, 0.3085
  7. 85% of people have an Rh-positive blood type. A random sample of n = 500 is selected.
    a. What is the mean of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion? 425
    b. What is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion? 8
    c. What is the probability that the sample proportion for the 500 individuals is between 83% and 88%? .8647
    d. Would it be statistically unusual for the sample proportion for the 500 individuals to be 70% or less? Yes 0.000
    *NOTE: Although the distribution of the number of people with Rh-positive blood is binomial, the distribution of the proportion of individuals with Rh-positive blood is approximately normal.
  8. A study conducted by a commuter train transportation company involved surveying a random sample of 200 passengers. The results showed that a customer had to wait on average 9.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 6.2 minutes to buy his or her ticket. Assume the waiting time follows a normal distribution.
    a. Construct a 95% confidence interval for μ, the true mean waiting time. (8.44, 10.17)
    b. If the sample size was doubled, what effect would it have on the confidence interval in (a)? would be smaller – change to (8.69, 9.91) c. If the confidence interval was increased to 99%, what effect would it have on the confidence interval in (a)? would be wider – change to (8.16, 10.44)
    d. Explain what the confidence interval in (a) means with respect to the true average waiting time of passengers? With 95% confidence, we believe the true avg waiting time is between 8.44 min and 10.17 min.
  9. A researcher is interested in estimating the average salary of police officers in a large city. She wants to be 90% confident that her estimate is accurate to within $100. If the standard deviation of salaries is known to be $800, how large a sample is needed to get the desired information?
    Survey 174 officers
  10. In a sample of 60 managers of a large firm, it is found that 12 are actively involved in local civic or charitable organizations. If p is the proportion of managers actively involved in local civic or charitable organizations:
    a. What is the best point estimate for p? 0.20
    b. What is the margin of error at the 85% confidence level? 0.074
    c. Calculate the 85% confidence interval for the proportion of all managers who are involved in local civic and charitable organizations. (0.126, 0.274)
  11. A computer chip company produces large quantities of chips. To estimate the defect rate of the production process, the manufacturer plans to draw a random sample of chips manufactured by the company. The company requires 95% confidence with an error of at most 0.10. What sample size should be used is there is no information about the value of ̂ p.
    97 chips
  12. A national safety council wishes to estimate the proportion of automobile accidents that involve pedestrians. How large a sample of accident records must be examined to be 98% certain that the estimate does not differ from the true proportion by more than 0.03? The council believes that the true proportion is somewhere around 0.25.
    1132 records
  13. A sample of 100 water vials was taken from a river and the amount of dissolved oxygen was measured. The sample mean and the sample standard deviation was found to be 5.02 and 0.6 ppm, respectively. A mean dissolved oxygen content of less than 5.2 is regarded as unsafe. Do the data given provide sufficient evidence that the quality of the water in the river is unsafe? Perform a statistical hypothesis test using α=0.05.
    a. Write down the null and alternative hypothesis. H0:μ=5.2 H1:μ<5.2
    b. Draw a picture and indicate the size and location of the rejection region(s). Also indicate value of the critical value(s). left side α=0.05
    c. Compute the value of the test statistic.
    t = -3.00
    d. State your conclusion about whether to reject or not reject the null hypothesis. Since the p-value (0.0017) is less than the significance level (0.05) we reject the null
    e. Explain your conclusion in the context of the problem and your belief about the safety of the water and its oxygen content.
    We have enough evidence to conclude that the mean oxygen level is less than 5.2
  14. A five year old census recorded that 20% of the families in a large community lived below the poverty level. To determine if this percentage has changed, a random sample of 100 families is studied and 23 are found to be living below the poverty line. Does this finding indicate that the current percentage of families earning incomes below the poverty level has changed from what it was 5 years ago? Perform a statistical hypothesis test using α=0.01.
    a. Write down the null and alternative hypothesis.
    H0: p=0.20 H1: p≠0.20 b. Draw a picture and indicate the size and location of the rejection region(s). Also indicate value of the critical value(s). both sides, each 0.005
    c. Compute the value of the test statistic.
    Z = 0.75
    d. State your conclusion about whether to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.
    Since the test statistic (0.75) is less extreme than the critical value (2.575) we do not reject null.
    e. Explain your conclusion in the context of the problem and the proportion of families with incomes below the poverty level.
    At 99% confidence we believe that 20% of families are still earning below the poverty line.
  15. A sprinkler system is designed so that the average time for the sprinklers to activate after being turned on is no more than 15 seconds. A test of 4 systems gave the following times: 10, 20, 20 and 15 seconds.
    a. Is the system working as required? Perform a test using α=0.05.
    Yes, p-value = 0.319
    b. If the significance level is changed to α=0.01 would your answer change?
    No, answer would be the same
  16. Suppose that a sample of size 16 is selected from a normally distributed population with a mean of 68.5 and a standard deviation of 8.9.
    a. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the population mean. (63.8, 73.2)
    b. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the population mean. Is the width of this interval smaller or wider than that in part (a). Explain why. Less confident – smaller (64.6, 72.4)
    c. Find another 95% confidence interval using a sample size of 25 and the same mean and standard deviation. Is the width of this interval smaller or wider than that in part (a). Explain why.
    Larger sample, more accurate – smaller (64.8, 72.2)
  17. A company randomly selected eight office employees and secretly monitored their computers for one month. The times (in hours) spent by these employees using their computers for non-job related activities like playing games, personal communications, etc. during the month are given below.
    7 12 9 8 11 4 14 16
    Assuming that such times for all employees are normally distributed, make a 95% confidence interval for the corresponding population mean for all employees at the company.
    (6.9, 13.4)
  18. Make a boxplot of the data in problem 17.
    17.51 Click here to receive assistance in this and other related assignments

Africa; socio-political and economics

Please read Ch8 Millennium Development pdf file and answer the question below:

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In your opinion which millennium development goal has been the greatest success? Why?

Then read CH9 Booming Africa pdf file and answer any two questions below: 

1) After reading the chapter, what misconceptions about Africa did you have?

2) Rapid economic growth currently occurring in Africa is unsustainable. What are its greatest costs (i.e. who or what is being permanently lost)?

3) Given the history of colonialism followed by the more recent independence movement across Africa, do core nations have an ethical responsibility to intervene in places enduring or recovering from civil war? 

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Once considered hopeless, much of sub-Saharan Africa is booming. Seven of the world’s 10 fastest-growing economies currently are in Africa. High prices for the continent’s oil and mineral exports have brought a surge of government revenue and investment, but the growth is occurring in commodity-poor countries as well. Better governance, less war and the rapid spread of cell phones and other communication technologies are fostering growth even in nations with few natural resources. Debt forgiveness and the rise of China, India and other emerging markets as trading partners and sources of investment also have spurred economies forward. Demographers say that with the continent’s working-age population projected to expand by a third by 2020, Africa could benefit from a “demographic dividend” that would fuel sustained economic growth, even as populations in developed countries and Asia are growing older. Yet, the population boom also poses challenges: Africa’s economies must provide enough jobs for the growing number of workers with expectations of a better life

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Just two decades ago, destitute Mozambique could have been the poster child for the economic basket case that was much of sub-Saharan Africa. More than a million people had died in a 17-year civil war, and up to a third of its 15 million people had fled their homes. With much of its farmland sown with landmines, the country had to import grain to feed itself. And the war’s $15 billion cost — about seven times Mozambique’s annual economic output — had virtually bankrupted the country

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Today, the Texas-sized country bordering the Indian Ocean is rising from the ashes. Newly built resorts offer $600-a-night rooms along the 1,550-mile coastline. Vast coal deposits and the discovery of natural gas reserves twice the size of Saudi Arabia’s could make Mozambique one of the world’s largest energy exporters in the next decade, and a new aluminum smelter is one of the biggest in the world.

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Mozambique’s turnaround has been mirrored across much of sub-Saharan Africa, where per capita income has risen 132 percent over the past 15 years. Seven of the world’s 10 fastest-growing economies currently are in sub-Saharan Africa, which is projected to grow by 5.3 percent next year, compared with 2.1 percent in the United States and 0.2 percent in eurozone countries, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

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William James Var and the Unseen

“What is the character of this Universe in which we dwell?”

QUESTION #1:
James emphasizes that contact with the “unseen” often takes place as a non-rational event, experienced principally as feeling (suchness) rather than as purely propositional knowledge (whatness):
It is as if there were in the human consciousness a sense of reality, a feeling of objective presence, a perception of what we may call ‘something there,’ more deep and more general than any of the special and particular ‘senses’ by which the current psychology supposes existent to be originally revealed. (58)

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We may now lay it down as certain that in the distinctively religious sphere of experience, many persons possess the objects of their belief, not in the form of mere conceptions which their intellect accepts as true, but rather in the form of quasi-sensible realities directly apprehended. (64)
[Such experiences] are as convincing to those who have them as any direct sensible experiences can, and they are, as a rule, much more convincing than results established by mere logic ever are. (72)

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Examine this suchness/whatness distinction as discussed in class. Explain how the sense of the ‘unseen’ from the Christian and Stoic perspectives, as we examined them, is representative of these two kinds of experience. How is the process of metanoia central to becoming receptive to the unseen, from the Christian perspective? What role does the logos play in the Stoic model? Why does James ultimately conclude that the Stoic model is the shallower of these two approaches?

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It is clear that for James, religious experience is a psychological phenomenon worthy of study, regardless of its origins. Explain the criteria of immediate luminousness, philosophical reasonableness, and moral helpfulness that James suggests we should employ in assessing the validity of such experiences. Would you agree with these criteria? If not, then by what means do you think such experiences should be assessed? In your opinion, is what James is calling “the religious experience” simply a product of the imagination, or potentially a contact with some kind of order that, for most of us, remains unrecognized? In terms of pragmatic “cash value,” as James calls it, does it even matter?

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QUESTION #2:
In exploring the various dispositions one may have regarding life, James observes that

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Much of what we call evil is due entirely to the way men take the phenomenon. It can often be converted into a bracing and tonic good by a simple change of the sufferer’s inner attitude from one of fear to one of fight; its sting so often departs and turns into a relish when, after vainly seeking to shun it, we agree to face it and bear it cheerfully, that a man is simply bound in honor, with reference to many of the facts that seem at first to disconcert his peace, to adopt this way of escape. Refuse to admit their badness; despise their power; ignore their presence; turn your attention the other way; and so far as you yourself are concerned at any rate, though the facts may still exist, their evil character exists no longer. Since you make them evil or good by your own thoughts about them, it is the ruling of your thoughts which proves to be your principle concern. The deliberate adoption of an optimistic turn of mind thus makes its entrance into philosophy. (88-89)


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While recognizing this healthy-minded perspective as a genuine religious attitude, James nevertheless argues that
… there is no doubt that healthy-mindedness is inadequate as a philosophical doctrine. (163)


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Examine the different varieties of both the healthy-minded and the morbid-minded religious types, as illustrated by James. What kind of religious attitude is cultivated by each type, and why? Which perspective employs a pluralistic view, and which embraces a monistic view, and why? What is it about morbid-mindedness in particular that leads James to conclude that it “ranges over the wider scene of experience”? Specifically, why does he believe that such an “incompletely unified moral and intellectual constitution” (167), as exhibited in the morbid type, is in the best position to cultivate the spiritual life? Would you agree with James on this point? How is it possible that the acknowledgement of life’s difficulties could actually lead to a deeper sense of human well-being? Why not just take a cheerful view of life (see below)? Explore this question.

Assess the Decision-Making Process and Interpret Professional Standards in Education

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This week, please consider a work-related decision that will need to be made soon at your educational organization.

It should not be:

  1. A decision that involves personal, family, confidential, or non-education-related matters.
  2. A decision that only involves a yes/no answer or simple alternatives such as whether to hold next year’s play day outside or in the gymnasium.
  3. A decision that only involves you or very few people.
  4. A decision that can be made quickly.
  5. A decision that is not a major concern and has no consequences or only minimal consequences.

It should be:

  1. A decision you will need to make while working in education or a decision that an acquaintance who works in education will need to make.
  2. A decision where there are multiple options being considered.
  3. A decision that will involve multiple stakeholders like administrators, teachers, parents, the community, etc. These are just suggested stakeholders.
  4. A decision that will take significant time to make successfully.
  5. A decision that is a major concern to all involved because it will have consequences in areas such as staffing, finances, ethics etc. These are just suggested areas.


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As you have learned thus far, professional standards, knowledge, skills, and attitudes will have a direct reflection on your area of specialization. Understanding the intricate details of these in your specialization will help you manage and address specific problems in diverse educational organizations. Does your discipline have a professional organization that sets standards for it? Go online to this organization’s website, Facebook, LinkedIn etc. and find examples of professional standards that apply to your discipline as well as knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Fill in the professional standards chart with your findings. Be sure to cite all the websites that you used in proper APA format. If you are not employed in education, you should use the area of education that an acquaintance works in and look up the professional standards, knowledge, skills, and attitudes for that area using appropriate websites and proper APA style.

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Length: 1 completed decision-making chart and 1 completed professional standards chart. 

References: The decision-making chart does not need references as it is a personal item. The professional standards chart requires you to give a reference for each website, Facebook page, LinkedIn page, etc. where you found information about the standards used in your area of specialization.

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International Entrepreneurial Consulting Course

International Entrepreneurial Consulting Course 

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Assessment .

  • Each assessment should describe the information presented and highlight any points you found interesting, as well the reason why these points peaked your interest.
  • Each assessment should be one page per source.
  • Please use 12 pt font, Times New Roman, Double Spaced formatting.

1. WATCH VIDEO 1: [Korean Culture Series] Japanese colonial policy and its impact on modern Korea.                              2 page

2. WATCH VIDEO 2: [Korean Culture Series] Korea’s long road toward democracy: Modern history of Korea                    2 page

3. WATCH VIDEO 3: [Korean Culture Series] Korea’s economic miracle: From foreign aid recipient to donor                   2 page

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4. READ: GEM REPORT PART III (pgs. 15-27 ONLY) linked below           2 page

5. Read article . ?State of South Korean Entrepreneurship? by Sam Lee,  https://medium.com/vanguard-cmc/the-state-of-south-korean-entrepreneurship-f2cfdacdf470″          answer : In your opinion, how does Korea?s political history influence the entrepreneurial, start-up culture in South Korea?                  1 page

With this report, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) has completed fifteen annual cycles. GEM generates relevant primary information on entrepreneurship, providing harmonized measures about the attitudes, activities and characteristics of individuals who participate in various phases of entrepreneurship. GEM also analyzes aspirations that these entrepreneurs hold for their businesses, along with other key features of their ventures. In 2013, more than 197,000 individuals have been surveyed and approximately 3,800 national experts on entrepreneurship participated in the study across 70 economies, collectively representing all global regions of the world and a broad range of economic development levels. The samples in the GEM 2013 study represent an estimated 75% of the world’s population and 90% of the world’s total GDP. In addition to its annual measures of entrepreneurship dynamics, GEM analyzed well-being as a special topic in 2013, With an increasing number of economies participating in the project, GEM groups them into geographic regions: click here to receive assistance in this and other related assignments
sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia Pacific/
South Asia, Europe (distinguishing economies that are part of the European Union from those outside the EU),
and North America. GEM additionally considers the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report
classification into three levels: factor-driven, efficiency-driven, and innovation-driven. By using both groupings,
GEM can compare economies across similar development  levels and geographic locations. The table below shows the economies involved in the GEM 2013 assessment by these two dimensions

Climate Change Discussion Essay

Please, read a textbook Climate Change pdf file and slides of Climate Change power point. Then you must respond to discussion statement 1 plus either 2 or 3 below. You can take any of the following positions: “agree,” “disagree,” “strongly agree,” or “strongly disagree” and then provide reasoning why you have this opinion. Be sure to always use facts from the text to demonstrate readings and/or cite your sources. Details matter here!

All must respond to:

1) Climate change is the greatest issue of our time.

Choose one of the following:

2) Nations contributing the most greenhouse gas pollutants must pay reparations to nations where human impacts are most felt.

3) U.S. immigration laws must be amended to allow for climate refugees.

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Global Warming or Climate Change?

Global Warming

➔The increase in overall average temperature of Earth’s climate.

➔BUT, not everywhere is warmer (some places get harsher winters).

Climate Change

➔The long-term change in global or regional climate patterns.

➔More encompassing & less confusing (but sounds less urgent).

Background

Measuring GHGs – GHG stands for Greenhouse Gas.

– In 1938, Guy Callendar concluded that rising GHG concentrations were raising the planet’s temperature.

– Further research by other scientist indicated that most human generated C02 emissions were being absorbed by the world’s oceans but the oceans were nearing capacity. So the assumption is that the rest of the C02 is accumulating in the atmosphere.

Calls for Action – Congress establishes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 and a wave of major environmental laws followed.

– By the late 1980s, environmentalist were calling for reductions in fossil fuel use.

Current Situation

Government Action – Environmentalists want Obama to take more action using executive orders

– Environmentalists believe that although Congress is divided, a good first step for the president is to use his authority under the Clean Air Act to finalize carbon pollution limits for new power plant as well as developing limits for existing power plants in order to reduce C02 output

Public Concern – Americans are much less polarized than Congress on climate change.

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– Surveys indicated that Americans think that climate change isn’t an urgent threat to them or their lifestyles, therefore they are only willing to make minor sacrifices to deal with it.

Criminal Justice System and Gangs

Since this class is focused on a variety of different aspects of gangs, your first assignment should generally tap into gangs. For this assignment I want you to discuss gang members and gang membership in a city of your choosing. The only exceptions to your selection of a city is that you cannot use L.A. or Chicago. Using five sources not including the textbook book please respond to the following questions and statements.

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First, outline the number of gang members in your selected city. How does this number compare to figures in Chicago and Los Angeles, the two major hubs for gangs in the United States? Has the number of gang members in your city recently been increasing or decreasing? Second, outline which gangs are present in your city. While you don?t have to name every gang in your city (all the names would be hard to find), please identify the more common ones as well as some that might be unique to the area. As part of this discussion describe the different sections of your city where these gangs are located (be as specific as possible). Third, what type of crimes are the different gangs primarily involved in. If possible, try to highlight crimes committed by a few different gangs (focus on both violent and nonviolent crimes). Click here to receive assistance in this and other related assignments. Fourth, what is the criminal justice system doing to combat gangs in your selected city? This discussion should focus on police, courts, and corrections. Have major operations been recently conducted or have key gang members been incarcerated. Based upon various efforts used or currently in place, I want you to provide recommendations based upon empirical research that would further assistance the criminal justice system and other organizations to reduce as well as prevent gang membership and the associated violence in your selected city. Lastly, provide a summary paragraph at the end of the paper that ties all of this information together.

Urinary tract infections

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence. Click here to receive assistance to this and other related assignments

Main Discussion Post

            Urinary tract infections (UTI) are characterized by inflammation in the lower or upper urinary tract. Lower UTIs occur in the bladder and is known as acute cystitis. Acute cystitis is the result of bacteria moving from the urethra into the bladder. The bacteria most responsible for UTIs is Eschericia coli, which has type-1 fimbriae that keep it from being excreted during urination. Once in the bladder, the inflammatory process begins. Edema in the bladder wall creates a filling of fullness and small discharge. Urinary urgency, frequency, and dysuria are common symptoms associated with cystitis. Upper UTIs are the result of bacteria moving from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys, which is often diagnosed as pyelonephritis. Like cystitis, E. coli and Pseudomonas are the most common forms of bacterial infections (Huether & McCance, 2017). These microorganisms are responsible for splitting urea into ammonia, which creates an alkaline environment that is conducive to stone formation (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). As these microorganisms ascend through the ureters, they induce the inflammatory process and often disseminate to the blood stream. Inflammation usually affects the renal pelvis, calyces, and medulla and occurs in an irregular fashion. With the influx of white blood cells, renal edema and inflammation occur leading to purulent urine. If infections are left untreated, abscesses may form. Both forms of UTIs have similarities and differences. In many cases, pyelonephritis is the result of untreated cystitis. Symptoms may be similar with urinary frequency, discharge, and pain. However, pyelonephritis differs in severity of symptoms. Patients may experience fever, chills, and flank pain. For both forms of infection, it is important to initiate proper treatment protocols (Huether & McCance, 2017).

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Patient Factors and Treatment

            Genetics plays an important role in the likelihood of acquiring UTIs and suffering from recurrent infections. Researchers have identified genes that control innate immune responses. These genes also control the expression of antibacterial pathways. Alterations to these genetic pathways disrupt the body’s immune response to bacterial infections. If patients are unable to respond appropriately, infections will persist, and chronic episodes of pyelonephritis will occur (Godaly, Ambite, & Svanborg, 2015). Gender is one of the most important risk factors for developing urinary infections. Women have significantly shorter urethra than men, which makes them more prone to infections. Bacteria such as, E. coli has a shorter distance to travel before reaching the bladder. Women are also at risk during sexual intercourse (Huether & McCance, 2017).